- Created by: xla.lax_
- Created on: 14-09-18 21:39
1921-Effects of War Communism
-Many workers&peasants began to think that the workers' state was worse than the government of the Tsar which they had been so pleased to get rid of.
-Economy of Russia was in ruins,Crime increased,Agricultural process had collapsed
-Industrial promotion had fallen disastrously under WC.
-Disruption of the war&forced grain requisitioning had led to low grain harvests, as peasants had seen little point in growing food.
-1921 even less grain was grown due to drought.
-This led to horrendous famine, which killed up to 5 million people,Opposition was growing
-Group called the Workers Opposition formed, demanding higher wages, better industry, more food&workers control of country.
-They objected to the use of the Cheka to scare people into submission.
-March 1921 sailors at the Kronstadt naval base staged an uprising because life under Communist dictatorship were worse to death.
-They had been strong Bolsh. supporters, but swapped sides-Trotsky had to use troops to crush&killed 20,000 men killed&wounded.
Why was War Communism brought to an end?
-By 1921,Russia had fallen unto a state of disarray.
-Money became more worthless.
-Theft was daily occurrence.
-Peasants stopped growing food that lead to famine.
-Steel production was down by 4%.
-THE CIVIL WAR FINISHED. Therfore they didn't war commission.
-Workers' Opposition-better pay+conditions etc.
-Kronstadt Navel Base rising.
Aim:KEEP RED ARMY SUPPLIED
In the towns:-State took control of industry and told factories what to produce. (arms)
-Lenin put his people in charge of factories&imposed strict discipline.
-Food was rationed,but people could only get a ration card they worked. -Money became virtually worthless &made people turned to trading.
In the countryside:- Lenin needed food to feed workers.-Peasants didn't wanna sell food for worthless money.
-Cheka was sent to seize surplus food.-Those found hoarding supplies were punished harshly.
-Peasants decided to produce less grain, as it would be taken.
Terror:-Cheka became violent-people opposing government were arrested and then shot without doing to labour camp or trial.
New Economic Policy
-Kronstadt rising in March 1921 spurred Lenin to do something.
-He knew that he had to improve the economic situation in Russia. If he didn't, the Communists wouldn't surive.
-1921, he introducted an NEP-the main features were:-To give the Soviet Union'breathing space'& taking 1 step backwards in order to take 2 steps forward.
-Grain requisitioning would be stopped.
-No longer would grain be taken from the peasants by force.
-Peasants would have to give a fixed amount of grain to goverment each year as tax.
-Any surplus they produced could be sold on the open market.
-Traders could buy&sell good (illgal during WC)
-Smaller factories,particularly those producing consumer good like shoes were returned to their former owners& allowed to make a profit.
-Larger industries eg coal,steel&transport remained under state control.
-Some large factories were allowed to sell their profits.
Effect of NEP
-Electrification of Russia
-Improved general economic situation
-Foreign trade increased
-Production of industrical good and grain increased.
-Many Communists were angry, as they saw features of the NEP as a 'return of Capitalism'& didn't like the idea of 'making profit' or for richer people having poorer people work for them.
-Prices for manufactured goods were too high for peasants.
-Peasants refused to sell grain for money that wouldn't get them goods.
-Stills lots on unemployment and crime.
In 1921, the Kronstadt sailors - who had been the Bolsheviks fiercest supporters - mutinied, demanding an end to War Communism. Trotsky put down the rebellion, but Lenin was worried - if the Kronstadt sailors had been pushed too far, how long would it be before the rest of the country rose up and threw out the Bolsheviks? The civil war was won. It was time to pull back.
Lenin brought in what he called the New Economic Policy. Peasants who had been forced to hand over all their produce to the war effort - were allowed to keep some to sell for profit - some (the kulaks) became quite rich. Small traders called Nepmen were allowed to set up businesses. At the same time, local nationalities who had been forced to follow a strict Communist line were allowedto bring back their own language and customs. Churches, mosques and bazaars were re-opened.
The economy picked up, and people were much happier. But many old Bolsheviks said Lenin had sold out to capitalism, and left the party.
War Communism and the NEP
In 1918, Lenin decided to introduce War Communism for two reasons. The first reason was that he wanted to put Communist theories into practice, for example, peasants could no longer sell their surplus of grain and had to give it to the state. The second reason that Lenin introduced War Communism was to help with the Civil war by keeping the towns and the Red army supplied with food and ammunition.
In 1921, Lenin decided to introduce the New Economic Policy, or the NEP, for two reasons. Firstly, War Communism was starting to become ineffective and in 1921, there was a great famine because peasants stopped growing more grain than they needed.
Secondly, the Kronstadt Rebellion scared Lenin and the Communist party into believing that Russia needed a new economic system. In March 1921, the Kronstadt sailors mutinied and Trotsky delt with quickly, killing thousands of soldiers. This wouldn’t have been to important, except that The Kronstadt sailors had been good supporters of The Bolsheviks during the Revolutions of 1917. Both reasons convinced Lenin that he needed a new economic policy, and in 1921, he decided to set up the IVEP.
War Communism and the NEP
War Communism, although it managed to help the Bolsheviks win the civil war, was not very successful. Peasants hated the fact that they could not sell their surplus of grain and started growing crops only for their needs. This meant thqt by the end of 1920 and in 1921, their was a huge famine, as the Bolsheviks couldn’t handout enough food , as not enough was grown.
The New Economic Policy, however, was a lot more a lot more successful. Agricultural and industrial production were rising, 50,3 million tones of grain were harvested in 1922 and 72,5 in 1925, 9,5 millions of tones of coal were mined in 1922 and 18,1 nearly twice as much , in 1925 .However, the NEP was not a Communist economic system, and many Communist thought it was a betrayal of Communism.
War Communism was highly criticized for causing terrible hardships and for being unfair. As the peasants could no longer get anything out of producing, they produced only for their needs and thus, food lacked and in 1921, their were great famines. On the other hand, the IVGP was criticized for being a return to a capitalist economy. The peasants could sell surplus food to earn money, in factories went back in the hands of private owners. All of these are capitalist ideas and are typical in a capitalist economic system. However Lenin did say NGP was temporary , but in 1924? Shortly after instoring NEP, he died, so no one knows how long he had meqnt IVEP to continue.
Stalin's Five-year Plans dealt with industrial production, but something needed to be done about the food supply so Stalin introduced collectivisation. After years of resistance and famines Stalin eventually executed those who resisted, or sent them to labour camps.
Collectivisation in practice
By the end of the 1920s, it was clear that Russian agriculture was inadequate. Although the kulaks were relatively wealthy and successful, the thousands of tiny, backward peasant farms were not producing enough to feed the population.
In 1927, Stalin declared that the way forward was for people in each village to voluntarily unite their farms into one collective farm. This kolkhoz would be able to afford machinery, be more efficient, and be able to create a surplus to send to the towns.
1930-After two years, when everyone had ignored his idea and there had been a famine, Stalin made collectivisation compulsory.The peasants hated the idea, so they burned their crops and killed their animals rather than hand them over to the state. There was another famine in 1930.
Stalin relaxed the rules for a while, but in 1931 he again tried to enforce collectivisation.Again there was the same resistance and another, worse famine. Stalin blamed the kulaks, and declared war on them. They were executed or sent to the gulag.
By 1939, 99 per cent of land had been collectivised 90% of the peasants lived on one of the 250,000 kolkhoz. Farming was run by government officials. The government took 90 per cent of production and left the rest for the people to live on.
Why did Stalin collectivise the farms?
He wanted more food to feed the workers in industry.
He needed a surplus of food to sell overseas to bring money into the country.
He needed people to leave the land and go to work in industry.
He wanted an excuse to destroy the kulaks, who believed in private ownership, not communism.
How successful was collectivisation?
Stalin achieved most of his aims:
Grain production rose to nearly 100 million tonnes in 1937, although the numbers of animals never recovered.
Russia sold large quantities of grain to other countries.
Some 17 million people left the countryside to go to work in the towns.
The kulaks were eliminated.
The peasants were closely under the government's control.
However, the human cost was immense:
Perhaps 3 million kulaks were killed.
There were famines in 1930 and 1932-3 when 5 million people starved to death.