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Sociologists to do with the mass media

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McCullagh (2002)

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Mass media simply means through which content (fact or fiction) is produced by organisations and transmitted to and received by an audience.

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McQuail (2000)

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  • Mass media significant in relation to culture.
  • Mass media provide people with image of 'social reality' and expresses 'shared identity'
  • Mass media is main 'leisure time interest' in society, provides a 'shared environment'
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McLuhan (1971)

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World is becoming a 'global village' due to new media.

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Devereux (2008)

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Key aspects that help us to develop a more detailed understanding of their role:

  • Mass media means of communication between 'senders' and 'receivers'.
  • Mass media texts as cultural products with social, cultural and political significance.
  • Mass media as industries or organisation.
  • Mass media as agents of social change and globalisation.
  • Mass media texts as commodities produced by media industries.
  • Mass media as agents of socialisation and powerful sources of social meaning.
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McLuhan (1964) determinism

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'Media determinism'

  • Media and new media technologies have determining influence on social change.
  • Widespread and ever-changing use of media has a fundamental effect on how people experience life, society and the world.
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Jagger (1998)

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  • Used content analysis in her study of 1094 dating advertisements in national newspapers.
  • Analysed dating adverts in four different newspapers over a period of time.
  • Created categories to place aspects of the adverts in.
  • Women were more likely than men to stress economic resources as being important in possible partners.
  • Both men and women placed significance on their bodies and physical appearance.
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Liebert and Baron (1972)

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Showed one group of children an episode of a TV police drama featuring high levels of violence. They showed a second group a TV sporting event which did not feature violence. After viewing children were allowed to play with a further group of children who hadn't seen either of the programmes, children who had seen the violent programme tended to act more aggressively than the others.

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Feshbach and Singer (1971)

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Studied 652 boys, aged 8-18, living in residential institutions-three private schools and two boy's homes. Boys were randomly divided into two groups. First group watched only violent programmes for 6 weeks, second group only non-violent programmes. Boys who watched non-violence showed more aggression towards others than those who watched violence.

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Miliband (1969)

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Owners of the media make capitalism seem inevitable, they do that through the television and papers etc. As long as the proletariat think they've got hope then the bourgeoisie are winning. Media is the new opium of the masses.

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Murdock and Golding (1973)

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Trend towards concentration of ownership an a range of media industries in the UK including print, film and recording.

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Galtung and Ruge (1965)

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Analysed international news stories, identified news values that were present in storiesthat reached top of news agenda.

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Criticisms of Galtung and Ruge's news values

Vasterman (1995)

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Mistaken about journalists actually reporting events 'but news is not out there, journalists do not report news. They construct it, they cnstruct facts, they construct statements, they construct a context in which these facts make sense. They reconstruct "a" reality'.

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Criticisms of Galtung and Ruge's news values

Hall (1981)

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  • Cited in Harcup and O'Neill (2001)
  • From a Marxist perspective
  • Galtung and Ruge's list of news values fails to shed light on the ideological factors underlying them.
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Criticisms of Galtung and Ruge's news values

Harcup and O'Neill (2001)

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Still see value in Galtung and Ruge's work, but believe their list must be updated to reflect contemporary trends in news reporting. The news value of entertainment should be added as research found this to be a factor in all newspapers.

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Curran and Gurevitch (2005)

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Case studies have noted the influence of editorial intervention and the self-censorship that journalists employ in an attempt to please their editors.

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Sumpter (2000)

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Editors keep a close eye on audience figures and make decisions on what stories to include on the basis of concerns about increasing audience size.

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  • Women always represented in sexual/rmantic roles (limited range of roles)
  • Symbolic annilihation-Women  in media either condemmed, absent or trivalised. Women devalued and sexualised. E.g. Sporting achievements (visibility)
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'Cult of femininity' (women as ideals)

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  • Size zero culture
  • Size zero causes eating disorders? (womean as ideals)
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Magazines support women and present a broader range od options not tackled before. E.g. Domestic abuse etc. (Women as ideals)

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Women under 'male gaze' of camera lens-eyeing them up. (sex appeal)

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Female fear of violent assault is used as basis for films (Male  aggressor, femal victim)

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