Changes in law: Equalised and widend grounds, and its cheaper
Declining stigma: Mitchel and goody= Decreased after 60's, now just a 'misfortune'
Secularisation: Church has less influence, but they are now softening views as they are losing credibility
Rising expectations: 'Romantic love' ideology (Fletcher). In the past there was little choice, but he says that it isn't a rejection of marriage completely as remarriages are increasing, but critics say its too rosy and feminists say marriage oppresses women
Changing position of women: Paid work, less economically dependant, educational success, equal pay, welfare benefits Allan and Crow= now they are not interdependant
N.R= undermines traditional nuclear family, Fem= free's women, Func= just shows higher expectations, Post.mod=Shows individuality, Interact= Different interpretations
Less marriages, more remarrigaes, older age to get married, less likely to marry in church
Reasons: Changing attitudes (more freedom) Secularisation, Stigma against cohabit's have decreased, position of women, fear of divorce
Remarriages are correlational to divorces
Ages are increasing as more women build a career
Secularisation and refucal of marriages in church mean less marriages in church
But marriage still remains popular
Partnerships-cohabitations & same sex
2 million, expected to double by 2021
Decline in stigma, Young are more likely to accept it, Less need of financial security for women, secularisation
With marriage: Chester= a step toward marriage, merely a phase, Beijin= an alternatie to create an equal relationship, Macklin= Cohab doesnt mean the same to everyone
5-7% are in a homo relationship, but an underestimate due to stigma. 1967=> age restriction to 21, 2002=> allowed to adopt, 2004=> allowed inheritance, property, pensions etc
Weeks= Increased social acceptance explains the increasing trend, Weston='quasi' marriages- more likely to cohabit as stable partners Allan and Crow=Flexible but not stable Cheal=Don't want to marry otherwise it may limit them, but to still be different
Partnerships- One person households
Tripled since 1961, 1/2 are of pensionable age, used to be mostly young men
Reasons: Divorce has left men with no family, marrying later means more stay single for longer, Deliberate choice to live alone, or no partners in their age group.
Living apart together (LAT's): Duncan and Phllips: 1/10 are LAT's due to less formalised families, but also notice its because they may not be able to afford to live togerther or they have their own properties.
Its no longer abnormal nor does it really effect traditional relationships.
Parents and children- Childbearing, Lone parent fa
*4/10 are born outside marriage, women are having fewer children and later or remaining childless, DUE TO...-> decline in stigma and the educational success of women, allowing them to build up a career beforehand= a later age
*24% of all, 90% are run by females. A loneparent with child is twice as liekly to be in poverty DUE TO...-> Increased divorce and sepreation, less stigma to birth outside of marriage, They're female headed becuase they have 'expressive' role, so usually get custody. Mothers may be single by choice (Renvoize= porfessional women could manage wihtout male involvement) (Cashmore= W.Class chose to live of benefits rather than being involved with abuse)