Sociologists claim that working class children are not socialised adequantely therefore they are 'culturally depriaved' as a result they underachieve in school.
Cultural deprivation broken into three parts
- intellectual development
- attitudes and values
J.W.B Douglas found in his study that Working class (W/c) children scored lower then the middle class (M/c) in the ability test. he argues that w/c parents are less likely to support children in their intellectual development.
Other studies found that m/c mothers are more likley to buy educational toys then w/c mothers.
Cultural Deprivation 2
Bernstein claims that difference in class achievement is due to the language difference he identifies the two types:
- Restricted code: usually spoken by the w/c with limited vocabulory and short unfinished sentences
- Elaboratated code usually spoken by the m/c with wide range of vocabulory, long complex sentences
M/c have advantage of the the w/c as the elaborate code is used by teachers, in textboos and exam the elaborated code is essential for education. the m/c pupils are socialised into it therefore they have better success.
Bernstein claims that the w/c are not failing because their culturally deprivated but are failing because school fails to teach the elaborated code.
Cultural Deprivation 3
Attitudes and Values
some sociologists argue that w/c parents give very little value to education and pass this value on to their children through socialisation.
Sugarman argues that w/c subculture acts as a barrier towards their success.
- Fatalism believe in fate
- Collectivism prefer to be grouped then be individuals
- Immediate gratification seek pleasure now rather then make sacrifice for future/
- present-time oreintation seeing the present time more important then the future.
Sugarman claims that w/c internalise these beliefs this results to underachievement. theorists argue that parents pass these values through socialisation.