Sociology crime dev

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  • Created by: reynolds
  • Created on: 15-01-13 13:41

Durkheim

- crime is inevitible

- can be functional in 3 ways:

1) reaffirming boundaries

2) changing values

3) social coheision

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Merton - strain theory

American dream: based on shared goal of material goods however due to peoples positions within society (class, gender, ethnicity etc) they dont all have the same access/opportunities. There are accepted ways of meeting these goals (through education, employment, hard work etc) but the desire of obtaining the material goods overpowered the emphasis of the accepted ways of meeting them so people turned to crime in order to meet them.

1) conformity

2) innovation

3) ritualism

4) retreatism

5) rebellion

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Wilson - broken window theory

d

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Murray - the underclass

crime is a result of the existance of the welfare state as it has created a culture of dependancy where people develop seperate norms and values to the rest of society meaning they lack morals and

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Lea and Young

3 causes of crime:

1) relative deprivation

2) subcultures

3) marginalisation

british society is racist and young ethnic minority males are economically and socially marginalised, and have a sense of relative deprivation = subcultures have emerged. crime is used as a coping mechanism of this

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Kingsey et al

solutions to crime: reestablish trust between police and community so they are seen more as a source of help meaning they report crimes more rather than using military style policing methods

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Becker - labelling theory

y

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Smart

**** trials bias

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Pollack - chivalry thesis

suspicious stereotype

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Heidenshon

women controlled at home, in work and in public

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Walklate

CJS unfair to women (crit pollack)

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Messerschmidt

men commit crime to reassert masculinity

(school, classes, sport, fighting etc)

/crime is therefore a social construction

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Young

hippies - master status - unfairly policed/disproportionate

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Cohen - folk devils & moral panics

mods and rockers

*Fawbert - hoodies

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The Macpherson report

stephen lawrence, CJS institutionally racist 4 areas:

1) policing

2) stop and search

3) arrests

4) prosecution

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Dobash and Dobash

domestic violence caused by mens dissatisification with wifes performance on domestic duties.

also controlled financially by men

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Adler - liberation thesis

as women become less supressed by patriarchy they become more involved in crime eg fighting

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Gordon

crime is a rational response to capitalist system.

crime exists in all classes though official statistics make it appear to be a working class phenomenon

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Snider

Big buisnesses are reluctant to pass laws that regulate the activities of buisness or threaten their profitability

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Chambliss

laws exist to protect the bourjeousie. the ruling class have power to prevent the introduction of laws that would threaten their intrests

- crime exists in all classes, the only difference is in the types of crime being committed and how the law is enforced across class boundaries

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Hall et al

Muggings - began during a crisis of caapitalism (economic recession) and the media presented black youth as a scapegoat

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Cicourel

negotiation of justice

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Shaw and mckay - centric zone model

zone of transition - people moving in and out regularly (more desirable areas etc) meaning community is not properly established, and so people dont fear the stigma attatched to crime

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Wilkstrom

city centres, poorer districts and affluent areas have high crime rates of different types of crime eg. poorer areas = violent crime, wealthy areas = burglary

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left realism

square of crime - to understand crime have to look at criminal, victim, state and

solution = establish better relationship with the police and community

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new right

solutions = zero tolerance, incarceration, retribution, more visible policing to deter people, military-style policing

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marxism

crime a result of materialistic society, monitoring, bourjeousie exploiting proletariat

- laws eg, sponsorship of american electoral campaigns

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victim surveys

-leave out victimless crimes (morrison)

/- shed light on social characteristics of criminals, question the accuracy of official statistics, used to test theories of crime (williams)

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