Explain what sociologist mean by hidden curriculum
- students pick up the messages through the experience of being at school
- Not taught in formal lesson time
- Type of socialization
- messages coded in different ways
- structure of school, teach hierarchial organisations
- social control, rules, regulations and hard work
- dress code
- gender role allocations, girls expressive. Boys, instrumental
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labelling in school
- When teachers stereotype pupils bad or good due to differnet social facors e.g. class, gender, ethnicity.
- Interactionist, Howard Becker argues when the agent of social control (teacher) define actions and abilities of different social groups.
- 'self fulfilling prophesy' pupils live up to that label
- Bottom sets create anti school sub culture. Too deterministic
- Ghaill-black girls resisted label
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School can raise pupil performance
- Show working class system is not designed to fail them
- Paul willis- status frustration- anti school sub culture
- Bernstein- concentrate on teaching elaborated code
- Encourage hard work of underachievers, increase examination grades, lead to increase of educational achievement
- Teaching classes smaller
- 30:1 go to 15:1
- teacher would have less students to pay attention to, students get more of teachers time
- if topics found hard, teacher can allocate more time to help understand it
- less marking, means more thorough marking, maximum improvement
- Easier to control, less chance of messing about
- better relationship between student and teacher
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Educational reform and how decreased educational o
- Increasing tuition fees for university.
- Many people wont be able to afford even if clever enough
- reason for this, more people wanting to go to university, jobs require a degree but going to university should be seen as exclusivity. not everyone goes
- £30,000 a year
- Clever people, have to go to workplace which is competitive
- but could se to advantage, get experience (plumer)
- Raised leaving age to 18 years old.
- Everyone will get A-levels and higher education, increase people with qualifications
- decrease educational opportunities, sixth forms have to lower standards because even people with low GCSE's need to go somewhere
- Lead to disruption and anti school sub cultures, result in lower A levels
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Marketisation of education
- Schools now comapared with eachother to appear more attractive to potential pupils and parents.
- This is done by league tables
- Schools more like a market place , schools become more independent.
- Critisiced by sociologists because parentocracy a myth, marketisation leading to parents making informed decisions on best school to send children . schools are hand picking students who are most likley to suceed, for league tables.
- Schools that dont get good grades, close like real business
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Characteristic of independent school
- Entry fees.
- Support - due to increase of money it means class sizes can be smaller, better grades
- better teaching standards
- Focused on middle/higher class, ones that can afford
- Specialised teaching and facilities, excel more, better jobs
- Meritocracy, sifts and sorts
- Working class shouldn get better jobs due to poor primary socialization lead to being unpolite and lack dress code
- Marxists- abloish them, they are elitist and ensure cultural reprodction.
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- Teaches national curriculum, has particular religious character or has links with religious organization
- Carry out some religious teachings e.g. praying before lunch
- Funded by local church, all students have same religion.
- Contrast to comprehensive school as has a variety of different beliefs and cultures, freedom in terms of religion
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Peer group pressure
- A peer group is a group of people of a similar age and interests to you
- Share a common identity
- Postitve, peers can pressure individual into revising or taking part in something for charity. Peer group can act as a support system to encourage individual to do things hse would have the courage to do on her own
- Negative, peers pressure individual into theft or being rude to teacher to gain status within peer group but also to not feel left out. Paul Willis- Status frustration. Working class, create anti school sub culture. Encouraged to mess about, if wanted to study would be taken the mick out of, teased and harassed
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Function of Education, how successful
- role allocation, 'sifts and sorts' students into different jobs for future by testing on knowledge of certain jobs
- mertitocratic , most intelligent, best jobs
- Successful, all tested through GCSES and ALEVELS, grades must meet certain demands fro certain jobs.
- marxists- tests in elabortaed code, aimed at middle class. Based on class if you do well
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encourage competition beneficial/non
- League tables.
- Parents can compare academic success of different schools in order to decide where to send child
- sucessful, made schools improve results in order to compete with others
- Popular schools being able to pick pupils who think are most intelligent
- Doesnt look at factors e.g. care needs.
- Specialist schools lower grades but better suited to those with special needs
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- Small proportion of children attend because exist outside state provison
- dont have to teach national curriculum
- select basis on being able to pay/pass an exam
- entrance examination and £30,000
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Achievement and Ethnicity
- Chinese highest performing
- Black lowest performing
- Material deprivation, cannot give their child the means to have maximum educational sucess Their own room, computer... . Without computer, cant research things, gain a lower mark. Without their own room, distractions, no space
- Working class, Marxists argue not able to support their children because usually single parents, not enough funds to give child things
- Certian Asian groups have communication barrier, English second langauge. Hard to undertand books and teachers
- made for middle class, elaborated code
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Parents influence on education success
- levels of encouragement, some parents from ethnic minority groups less interested in their childrens education
- Working class less interested, education system harsh on them leade to them rebeliing it and work system
- Lead to benefits
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