- speech codes
- parents' education
- working-class subcultures
- compensatory education
- diet health
- cost of education and fear of debt
- Bourdieu: cultural capital
Streaming --> A-C Economy + Educational Triage
Pupil Subcultures: Anti-School Subcultures
Pupils' Class Subcultures and School: Symbolic Capital and Nike Identities
LANGUAGE: SPEECH CODES BERNSTEIN 1975
- Differernces in language between M/C and W/C= influences achievement.
- Restricted Code= W/C: limited vocab/ short, unfinished sentences/ grammatically simple/ context bound.
- Elaborated Code= M/C: wider vocab/ longer and more grammatically complex sentences/ context free.
- = Gives M/C advantage and W/C= disadvantage as elaborated code used in schools by teachers, exams & text books. M/C pupils already socialised into this code early on so they feel 'at home' & succeed in school. W/C feel excluded and less successful.
- Critique: he is a cult.dep. theorist bc he sees W/C speech as inadequate for education, but he notes that it is schools to blame for w/c failure as they fail to teach elaborated code. + Troyna & Williams (86) argue problem is school's attitudes towards child's language not the child. Teachers have 'speech hierachry'.
PARENT'S EDUCATION/PARENTING STYLE/BEHAVIOURS/INCO
- Parent's education is a key factor affecting children's achievement.
- e.g 1964 Douglas found that w/c paents placed less value on education= thus less ambitious, gave less encouragement.
- Similarly, Feinstein argues that parent's edu= most important factor affecting achievement bc m/c parents are better educated + give their kids advantage by how they socialise them.
- Better educated parents=higher income= spend money to promote child's success e.g educational toys, books. leaving w/c kids without intellectual skills.
- Critique: Blackstone (1994) rejects view that w/c parents aren't interested in kid's education: they attend fewer parent's evenings as they work longer hours or put off by school's m/c atmosphere. they want to help but lack knowledge to do so.
- Link higher expectations of kids of m/c to working class subculture.
WORKING CLASS SUBCULTURE SUGARMAN 1970
- Lack of parental interest in education reflects subcultural attitudes of w/c. Subculture= group whose attitudes and values differ from mainstream culture.
- This is why they fail at school bc their attitudes dont match school m/c habitus= acts as a barrier.
- e.g. fatalism 'what will be, will be'/collectivism 'valuing being a part of a community'/immediate grattification 'seeking pleasure now rather than sacrificing for long term gains'
- Critique: Keddie (1973)= cult.dep. is a myth. A victim-blaming theory. A child cannot be deprived of its own culture, w/c values are simply different, not inadequate. They fail bc=disadvantage against dominant m/c values.
- Programmes aimed to tackle cult.dep. by providing extra resources to kids in deprived areas + intervening early in socialisation process to compensate for deprivation at home.
- e.g UK= Sure Start 2010 to improve child's ability to learn w/ high equality environment and resources.
Link to final conclusion that combines all three capitals by saying that cultural factors alone can't be the reason that w/c do worse and m/c better.
WHAT IS MATERIAL DEPRIVATION?
REFERS TO POVERTY AND LACK OF MATERIAL RESOURCES SUCH AS INCOME AND ADEQUATE HOUSING.
HEAVILY LINKED TO SOCIAL CLASS AND EDUCATIONAL UNDERACHIEVEMENT:
- 90% OF FAILING SCHOOLS=IN DEPRIVED AREAS
- LESS THAN 1/3 FSM KIDS ACHIEVE 5 A*-C GCSEs
EFFECT OF DIET AND HEALTH W/C EDUCATION ACHIEVEMEN
- Howard (2001) young people from poorer homes= lower intake of energy, vitamins and minerals.
- e.g poor nutrition affects health= weakens immune system= more absences from school due to illness.
- e.g Wilkinson (1996) lower the social class the higher the rate of ADHD in 10yr olds= negative effect.
Critique: poor families still succeed so mat.dep. is only part of the explanation: Feinstein shows educated parents make a positive contribution regardless the income level.
Positive Ev or Link: Mortimore + Whitty (1997) tackling child poverty= most effective way to boost achievement.
FINANCIAL COST OF EDUCATION BULL (1980)
- Lack of financial support= kids of poor fam= must do without equipment and miss experiences that would enhance their educational achievement.
- not having current items leads to stigmatisation.
- Bull= 'costs of free schooling' = costs of transport, uniform, sports, art equipment =heavy burden.
- Smith and Noble (1995) note how poverty acts as a barrier such as not affording tuition or and poorer quality local schools.
Critique: EMAs introduced to help w/c post 16+ stay on but at same time 'New Labour Paradox' =raised tuition fees.
CULTURAL CAPITAL (THREE TYPES OF CAPITAL) BOURDIEU
ALL THREE FACTORS OF EDUCATIONAL, ECONOMICAL AND CULTURAL CAPITAL ARE IMPORTANT