Sociology - Crime and Deviance


Globalisation Of Crime - Definitions of State Cri

Definitions Of State Crime

  • Chambliss - Domestic Law
    • Acts defined by laws as criminal and cmmitted by staate officials in pusuit of their jobs as representitives of the state.
  • Michalowski - Social harm + Zemiology
    • Any act that harms society, doesnt need to break the law
  • Interactionalst view - Labelling + societial reaction
    • Crime depends on whether the social audience defines it.  Recognises that the state is socially constructed, can vary between classes. 
  • Rothe + Mullins - International Law
    • Any action by or on behalf of a state that violates the international law and or a states own domestic laws
  • Herman + Schwendinger - Human rights
    • Any crime by government that imposes exploitation or breaks basic human rights. 
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Globalisation Of Crime - Explanations of State Cri

Why we have state crime:

  • Adorno - Authorisation personality 
    • Suggests some people have a personality type that makes them suceptable to obedience, this is often a product of harsh parenting - Very common in Germany = the holocaust more successful as people are socialised to obay
  • Kelman + Hamilton - Crimes of obedience, 3 factors leading to state crime
    • Authorisation - Crime is approved by authority firgure (Hitler)
    • Routinisation - A certian act becomes routine that has been preformed, became de-sensitised by routine (it became very common to presecute Jews in Nazi Germany)
    • Dehumanisation - The 'Emny' is often given non-human characteristics (E.g. giving jewish people numbers instead of names in concentration camps)
  • Bauman - Modernity
    • Division of labour - One job for every person, everyone has a role to play in society 
    • Bureaucratisation - killing has been normalised by video games, it is not much pf a big deal anymore
    • Instramental nationality- Rational, effective methods used to achieve goal E.g. an aryan race would iradicate disease/ deformaties
    • Science/Tech - Advances in science and tech advances have made it easier to commit state crimes E.g. transporting Polish people on trains to the gas chambers in the holocaust. 
    • Culture of Denial - States deny comitting crimes E.g. Russia denying Novichock poisoning 
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Globalisation Of Crime - Types/ scale of State Cri

Types of State Crime

  • Crimes committed by governments .E.G the holocaust
  • Mclaughin- 4 types of state crime
    • Political - Corrputin in politics
    • Security - Crimes comitted by police (torture)
    • Ecomonic - Reduction in health and safety/ funding that puts people at risk
    • Social/Cultural - Institutional racism
  • Kramer + Michalowski - State initiated crime/ State faciliated crime
    • State iniated = Challenge space shuttle disaster, state reduced funding whihc meant it was unsafe and many people died
    • State faciliated = BP deep water horizen oil spill, the state did not implicate regulations to stop this 

Scales of state crime

  • Often occurs on large sclaes
    • E.g. 6 million jews killed in the holocaust
    • Khmer rouge in Cambodia, 1/3 of population was killed 
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