- Women are mainly presented in two roles: domestic and sexual
- Men outnumbered women 3 to 1 on TV
- Women are symbolically annihilated by the media via "absence, condemnation and trivialization"
- Games shows, quizzes and discussions invaraibly hosted by men
Bulter and Paisley:
- 90% voiceovers on adverts are male
- 70% of women were shown doing domestic chores on adverts.
- 60% of women shown in family roles
- Soaps are driven by strong female characters
- Women now feature in police dramas as main characters as well as in sitcoms. Previously, they were only peripheral.
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- Popular shows in the 1980s, such as The A Team, represented masculinity as being related to power and authority.
- Police dramas have now blurred gender differences presenting a more feminised representation of men.
- Sport is a refuge for men as a large number of people view women's sport as inferior to men's.
- 80-90% of media coverage is dedicated to men's sport.
- Men Behaving Badly has leading characters who reject the feminisation of male characters.
- Instead they are self-centred, boorish and rude whilst the female characters are more sophisticated and intelligent
- Lads magazines concentrate on male interests such as gadgets and sports.
- The sexism expressed is light-hearted and ironic
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- Representation of male homosexuals are often camp, effeminate characters
- They make fun of the serious and respectable
- They have a slightly subversive role but don't challenge the typical male stereotype.
- There are no 'just plain gay folks' in the media.
- Homosexuality is shown as a problem, although portrayals have become more sympathetic (eg: Friends and Eastenders)
- Lesbian films have achieved box office success
- But, they have little to do with real life lesbian relationships and more to do with male, heterosexual fantasies.
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- The media has two main approaches to disability.
- An obsession with miricle cures via medical intervention and treating those with disabilities as victims.
- We are encouraged to pity them and very rarely are they shown leading 'normal' lives.
Cumberbatch and Negrine:
- There were no disabled people on quizzes or current affairs shows.
- They also only make up 0.5% of characters on fictional programmes
- Telethons do raise money but also maintain negative stereotypes and may seem patronising or humiliating
O'Sulliavan and Jewkes:
- There are now far more disabled people on TV.
- They are presented in a far more rounded way in films such as: My Left Foot, Rainman and The Piano.
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- TV rarely represents the interests of the working classes.
- News and current affairs are dominated by middle-class experts.
- Working class men are shown as dumb, inarticulate and old fashioned
- But since the 1960s portrayals have aimed to adopt a more sympathetic and realistic approach.
- Soaps are the most popular TV programmes
- As working class communities have declined, fictional ones have multiplied
- People interact with soaps because they compensate for the loss of community
- People become attached to the chacacters, Marxists argue this is another form of false concsiousness.
- Many of the characters are stereotypical representations
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- From a Marxist viewpoint, the elderly are economically useless to Capitalism
- Emphasis in the media is on the elderly as a soical and economic problem.
- Old age is to be feared and delayed
- Only 3% of prime time characters are over 70.
- 33% of male prime time characters were over 40 compared to 19% of female characters
- Male stars are often given leading ladies who are half their age.
- The old cliche "mutton dressed as lamb" is no longer applicable
- The over 50s now have a far more positive image, for examples, Cher and Judi Dench
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- 'Clockwork Orange Society'
- Many reports refering to brutal murders commited by youth who were high or drunk
- Continuous moral panics about youths: teen pregnancy, binge drinking, hoodies, gun crimes, knife crime, addiction
Mazzarella and Pecara:
- Half of the articles about teenage girls were concerned with the intervention and prevention of problems such as teenage pregnancy and binge drinking
- 20% of the stories had quotes from teenage girls as opposed to 'experts' giving their views and offering solutions.
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