Part 2: Measures to control the flow of traffic.
· Area Licensing Scheme (ALS)
Under the Area Licensing Scheme (ALS), motorists had to pay for the use of certain roads in Singapore. These roads were bounded within areas designated as Restricted Zones. Gantries were set up at the boundaries of city areas to monitor motorists who drove in to ‘Restricted Zones’. To support the ALS, other measures such as improving bus services were implemented. When the ALS first started in June 1975, motorists were unhappy about the increased costs of travelling. However, overtime, many people showed support as the ALS was successful, by ensuring smooth traffic in the Central Business District (CBD). The volume of traffic going into the CBD during 7.30-9.30am, reduced from 32500 to 7700 vehicles. (Linking sentence) With the implementation of the ALS, many people chose to take public transport or avoid driving into ‘Restricted Zones’. As a result, this measure ensured smooth traffic flow by reducing the number of cars in the CBD.
· Electronic Road Pricing (ERP)
1. Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) is an electronic system of road pricing based on the ‘pay as you use’ principle.
2. It served as the same purpose as the Area Licensing Scheme (ALS), where motorists had to pay for the use of certain roads in Singapore.
3. However unlike the labour-intensive ALS, ERP is more efficient as it uses up to date technology to monitor and regulate traffic flow.
4. Thus is replaced ALS in 1998.
5. In the ERP system, payment would be deducted electronically from the cash card inserted in the In-Vehicle-Unit (installed in each vehicle), as it passes the gantry.
6. With the implementation of the ERP, many people chose to take public transport or avoid driving into ‘Restricted Zones’.
7. As a result, this measure ensured smooth traffic flow by reducing the number of cars in the CBD.
· Park-and-Ride Scheme
1. The Park-and-Ride Scheme was also introduced at the same time as ALS to control the traffic flow in the CBD.
2. Under this scheme, motorists could park their vehicles at specific car parks which were outside the city area.
3. From these car parks, they could use public transport to enter the city area.
4. However, this scheme was not successful as out of the 7700 parking lots created at nine sites just outside the Restricted Zone, only 585 were taken up.
5. Motorist also did not think it is worthwhile to leave their cars parked outside the city all day.
6. So, they switched to the regular bus service or drove into the CBD before the ALS operate at 7.30am.
7. Thus, the land was allocated for building car parks which were not used.
8. Shuttle bus companies set up for this scheme were not able to survive with the small number of passengers.
9. However, even though the Park-and-Ride Scheme was not successful in the 1970s, the scheme is still being used today.
10. This is because, as time passes, needs of people change and measures that did not work in the past may work today.
11. With the implementation of the Park-and-Ride Scheme, the government hoped that fewer cars would enter the CBD, allowing a smoother traffic flow.
· Vehicle Quota System
1. In 1990s, there was a sharp increase in car ownership because more people could afford to buy cars.
2. Thus, there was an urgent need to come up with new measures to control the car population in Singapore.
3. The Land Transport Authority (LTA), implemented the Certificate of Entitlement (COE) system.
4. Under the COE system, only a specific number of new cars are allowed for registration, based on the quota set by the LTA.
5. Thus, only certain number of cars can be purchased.
6. Car buyers must first bid for the COE, before they can purchase the car.
7. In 1997, the COE alone was equal to $100000.
8. As a result, many people choose not to buy cars and instead take public transport, because of the high price.
9. Thus reducing the number of cars on the roads.