social learning theory Tarde (1912) and Bandura (1
A01: Gabriel Tarde (1912). He argued that the key characterisitcs of imitation were:
- -the behaviour of role models
- -the copying of the behaviour of those of a higher status
- - the degree of contact with role model
- -the degree of understanding of the behaviour
social behaviour and responses could be shaped by the actions of others.
Banduras SLT (1963):A01
Combines the logic of both social psychology and cognitive in his social cognitive perspective. behaviour may be motivated not only be inherent psychological factors, but also by more socio-enviromental factors.
He argued that the individual and the social environment were linked- reciprocal determinism.Four basic processes:
A02 issues approaches debates
- -attention- How much do you concentrate on the model showing the behaviour?
- -retention- storing the behaviour you witnessed
- -reproduction- copying behaviour.
- - motivation- having good reason to copy the behaviour e.g real or imaginary incentive
Tarde 1912 A02/A03:
Social learning theory- this is reductionist view because it does not involve all aspects of psychology such as genetics and neuroanatomical.
It is deterministic because it says we act or dont act aggresivley because of what our role models do or don't not because we have free will and we simply "want" to act the way we do.
it lacks temporal validity because the work was done almost 100 years ago
Bandura 1963 A02/A03:
The process is deterministicas it suggests our behaviour is determined by our environment and we have no free will over our actions.
However it has a good use of different areas of psychology combining SLT, cognitive and behaviourism.
Bandura used experimental evidence to back up his theory. However the validity of thhe theory is assessed by the amount and quality of research evidence that supports it. Other researchers have concluded imitation is a causal factor in aggression.
What does deindividuation mean? "The loss of one's sense of individuality" Reber and Reber 2001
Refers to the process of decreased self assesment and awareness in situations where identification of an individual is difficult if not imposible. ie, someone wearing a mask or in a crowded music arena. Changes in the normal standard of behaviour occurr.
Group situation--> Inhibitions reduce--> Changes in normal standard behaviour
Zimbardo suggests contextual factor such as sensory overload, altered states of conciousness, level of arousal and reduction of responsibility could equally increase the likleyhood of antisocial behaviour.
In each case inhibitions surrounding normal behaviour are reudced.