Social Influence

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  • Created by: _laurenb
  • Created on: 28-04-15 07:59

Social Facilitation Study

TRIPLETT &THE FISHING REEL

  • gave participants a practice run at winding a fishing reel 150 times
  • they then did the same in two conditions
  • condition 1: in a pair
  • condition 2: alone
  • participants were around 1% faster when performing in a pair than when performing alone

SHOWS THAT THE MERE PRESENCE OF ANOTHER PERSON CAN FACILITATE PERFORMANCE OF A TASK.

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Dominant Responses Study

MICHAELS & THE POOL PLAYERS

  • chose 12 pool players
  • 6 above average
  • 6 below average
  • were observed by an audience of 4 whilst playing

 

  • above average players potted 80% of shots when observed and 71% when not observed
  • below average players potted 25% of shots when observed and 36% when not observed

SHOWS THAT DOMINANT RESPONSES ARE ENHANCED BY THE PRESENCE OF AN AUDIENCE, SUPPORTING ZAJONC'S THEORY.

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Evaluation Apprehension Study

BARTIS ET AL. & THE KNIVES

  • participants were placed in two conditions
  • condition 1: participants were told their identity would be given
  • condition 2: participants were told their identity would not be given
  • both groups were asked to give both normal and creative uses of knives
  • participants who were told that they would be idenitified performed better in the simple task
  • participants who were told that they would be idenitified performed worse in the complex task

SHOWS THAT EVALUATION APPREHENSION INCREASES PERFORMANCE OF SIMPLE TASKS AND DECREASES PERFORMANCE OF COMPLEX TASKS.

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Distraction - Conflict Theory Study

SAUNDERS ET AL. & THE TASKS 

  • participants given either a simple or complex task
  • placed with a co-actor who either carried out the same task or a different one
  • when performing the same task, the co-actor was a distraction as the participants would be comparing their own ability
  • participants performed better on the simple task when in the presence of someone performing the same task
  • participants performed worse on the complex task when in the presence of someone performing the same task

SUPPORTS DISTRACTION-CONFLICT THEORY

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Conformity Study

SHERIF & THE AUTOKINETIC EFFECT

  • a small stationary spot of light appears to move when in a dark room
  • when participants were in a room alone they made various judgements about how far it moved
  • Sherif placed 3 participants in a room together
  • 2 of the participants had similar estimates, the other very different 
  • the participant who had a very different answer conformed

SHOWS CONFORMITY.

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Conformity Study

ASCH & THE LINES

  • 1 participant
  • 7 confederates
  • asked to pick the line that was most similar to the target line
  • confederates gave an obvious wrong answer
  • 1 participant was placed at the end of the line and so gave answer last
  • 78% of participants conformed with the incorrect answer

SHOWS CONFORMITY; SHOWS INFLUENCE OF GROUP PRESSURE ON CONFORMITY

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Normative Social Influence

ANDERSON ET AL. & THE BODY IMAGES

  • 54 women from different cultures
  • asked about their ideal body size
  • 'slender', 'moderate' or 'heavy'
  • the cultures had either unreliable, moderately reliable or reliable food sources
  • where food supplies were unreliable, women were more likely to have a 'heavy' ideal body image
  • where food supplies were reliable, women were more likely to have a 'slender' ideal body image

WHERE FOOD SUPPLIES ARE RELIABLE, NORMATIVE SOCIAL INFLUENCE IS PRESENT

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Informational Social Influence

BARON ET AL. & THE ASCH VARIATION

  • used a drawing of a person instead of lines
  • two conditions

1. picture shown for 1/2 a second

2. picture shown for 5 seconds

  • heard the wrong judgements of 2 confederates
  • participants then asked to match the picture to one it was most similar to
  • conformity was higher when the picture was shown for only 1/2 second

PEOPLE ARE MORE LIKE TO CONFORM WHEN THEY ARE UNSURE OF THEIR JUDGEMENT; SHOWS INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INFLUENCE

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Decreasing Conformity Study

CRUTCHFIELD & THE BOOTHS

  • placed in separate booths
  • asked questions which they had to answer
  • told their answer would be shown to other participants before those participants gave their answers
  • conformity to the incorrect majority view was 50%
  • this is 28% lower than in Asch's study where the other participants were actually present

SHOWS THE ACTUAL PRESENCE OF OTHER PEOPLE INCREASES CONFORMITY TO THEIR VIEW

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Defiance of Authority

FELDMAN & SCHIEBE & THE QUESTIONNAIRES

  • asked participants to complete a personal questionnaire
  • placed with confederates in 1 of 2 conditions:

1. Confederates disagreed to complete questionnaire

2. Confederates willingly completed the questionnaire

  • more participants filled out the questionnaire in condition 2 than 1

SHOWS THAT PEOPLE ARE MORE LIKELY TO DEFY AUTHORITY WHEN WHAT IS ASKED IS HARMFUL OR UPSETTING, WHEN THEY HAVE SOCIAL SUPPORT

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Obedience

BICKMAN & THE LITTER

  • individuals asked to pick up litter
  • 2 conditions

1. person who asked dressed in military uniform

2. person who asked dressed casually

  • obedience was higher when the asker was dressed in uniform

SUPPORTS LEGITIMACY OF AUTHORITY

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