Phillipe Aries (1960)
- During the middles ages, the "idea of childhood" did not exist.
- Children weaned, however once they were past the stage of being physically dependant on their parents, they were classed as adults.
- Children began work very young and were seen as "mini-adults".
- Society was/is socially constructed.
- He looked at paintings from the middle ages.
- Said children appeared without "any of the characteristics of childhood" - simply shown on a smaller scale.
Edward Shorter (1975) - Argued that parental attitudes towards children were also very different. He said that high death rates encouraged indifference & neglect. Often children were called "it" and forgotten about.