- Created by: lyds28
- Created on: 07-03-19 10:05
- Bridge between cognitive and behaviourist.
- Still in behaviourist.
- considers mental processes involved in learning.
- Mind - behaviour - environment/learning.
- agrees much of behaviour is learned from experience BUT Bandura believed that this didnt need to be just direct experience.
- Learning occurs within a social context, so people learn from one another through observation and imitation.
- People can learn by observing the behavior of others (a MODEL) and the outcomes of those behaviours.
Reinforcement which is not directly experienced but occurs through observing someone else being reinforced for a behaviour.
This is a key factor in imitation.
The Role of Mediational Processes
Focussing on how cognitive factors are involved in learning. These mental factors mediate (intervene) in the learning process to determine whether a new response is acquired.
Retention - The individual remembers what they have observed.
Motor Reproduction - The individual replicates the behaviour shown by the model.
Attention - The individual notices someone in their environment.
Motivation - Individual seeks to demonstarte the behaviour they have learned.
Bandura's Bobo Doll Study
- 72 p's - children - half male, half female - between 3 + 6.
- Split into3 groups:
- 1 exposed to aggression towards doll.
- 1 to non aggresive adults.
- controlled - exposed to neither.
- Random allocation.
- 2 experimental groups split by sex
- girls watched females, boys male role models.
- Other groups - opp sex role model.
- Each child - experiment by themselves - reduce demand characteristics.
- 1st room - Bobo doll = role model.
- 2 - toys not allowed to play with
- 3 - just child and Bobo.
- IV - behaviour of models
- DV - reaction of children.
Bobo Doll Study Findings/Evaluation
- Aggressive R.M - acted more aggressive
- Non-aggressive R.M - ignored or played nice.
- copied more with same sec role model.
- Children dont have to be directly affected to learn behaviours.
- Follow up study - 4 months later - still showed same results - big implications.
- Continuity - each child exposed to same environment.
- Random allocation
- Replication (and subsequent studies).
- Setting was strange - exposed to unusual behaviour from adult model - artificial (demand characteristics).
- Bobo dolls - designed to be hit - validity.
- Ethics - long term effects (also only a snapshot of behaviour).
Evaluation of Social Learning Theory
- Takes into consideration cognitive factors (thinking) unlike behaviourist.
- Considers free-will because of mediational processes.
- Explains cultural differences - observation and imitation of R.M.
- Over-reliant on lab studies e.g. Bandura's study - artificial setting - demand characteristics.
- Enderestimates role of biology - e.g. Bandura's study - testosterone could explain levels of aggression.