AO1 1 Social learning theory
- renamed SLT as social cognitive theory to emphasis the role of cognitive factors
- gender role development is the result of learning and reinforcement.
AO1 2 Parents
- reinforce gender appropriate behaviour but not gender inappropriate behaviour.
Idle - father's react negatively to son's feminine behaviours.
Fagot et al - parents who differentially reinforce gender behaviour have children who are quickest to develop strong gender preferences.
AO1 3 Peers
- provide gender specific models and reinforce gender behaviour
Perry and Bussey - boys and girls select toys they previously saw same gender children selecting.
Lamb - 'punish' gender inappropriate behaviour, direct intuition - 'don't be a cissy'
AO1 4 - Media
- communicate cultural stereotypes
Bussey and Bandura
males - independant and directive
females - unambitious and emotional
McGhee and Frueh - those who watch more tv display more gender stereotypic role conceptions
AO2 1 - Parents research support
Smith and Lloyd -
- observed mothers playing with an infant either presented as a boy or girl (based on name or clothing)
- mothers selected gender appropriate toys
- responded more actively when a 'boy' showed increased motor activity.
AO2 2 Peer research support
Lamb and Roopnarine -
- male typed behaviour was reinforced in girls the behaviour continued for a shorter time than when male typed behaviour was reinforced in boys.
- peer reinforcement acts as a reminder of what is gender appropriate behaviour.
AO2 3 Media research support
- children with no tv had weaker gender stereotypes
- after exposure to tv their views became more stereotypical.
- media reinforces stereotypes
IDA real world application
- pressure on program makers to use media to alter gender stereotypes
- Pingree - stereotyping was reduced when shown commercials with women in non traiditional gender roles
- pre adolescent boys held stronger stereotypes after exposure to non traditional models.
IDA Biological approach
- Bandura - did not deny the role of biological factors in social learning
- starting point for social learning was knowing what sex you are - based on biology and gender identification at birth.
AO2 4 - Direct tuition
Martin et al
- pre-school boys played with toys labelled 'boys' toys even after seeing girls playing with them, but did not play with 'girls' toys even after seen boys play with them.
- did not model same sex behaviour when it was counter to direct tuition