Smoking + Diseases

Smoking and Diseases

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  • damage occurs to artery linings so WBCs move into area
  •  WBCs, lipids and connective tissue and harden to form a fibrous plaque called an atheroma
  • partially blocks the artery restrciting blood flow
  • atherosclerosis is the hardening of arteries due to atheromas
  • nicotine increases blood pressure causing damage to arteries and leads to more atheromas
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Coronary Heart Disease

  • coronary arteries have many atheromas restricting blood flow to heart
  • reduction in amount of oxygen causing angina (pain) or heart attack
  • carbon monoxide irreversibly combines with haemoglobin reducing oxygen transportation to heart
  • nocotine makes platelets sticky increasing chance of blood clots
  • clotting in coronary arteries can cause a heart attack
  • atheromas increases risk blood clots
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  • stroke is a rapid loss of brain function due to disruption in blood supply to brain
  • this can be caused by a blood clot in an artery leading to the brain reducing blood and therefore oxygen supply
  • nicotine increases clots forming
  • carbon monoxide increases the risk of stroke because it reduces the amount of oxygen available to the brain by combining with haeomoglobin
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Lung Cancer

  • carcinogens in cigarette smoke cause mutations in the DNA of lung cells
  • could lead to uncontrolled cell growth and formation of a malignant tumour
  • these grow uncontrollably blocking the air flow to the lungs
  • decreases gas exchange + leads to a shortness of breath
  • tumour uses lots of nutrients and energy to grow causing weight loss
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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  • Chromic Bronchitis is a type of COPD (a group of diseases that involve permanent airflow reduction)
  • inflammation of lungs
  • smoke damages cilia and causes goblet cells to produce more mucus
  • mucus accumulates in lungs causing increased coughing
  • microorganisms multiply in mucus and cause lung infection leading to inflammation and decreases gaseous exchange
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  • lung disease caused by smoking or exposure to air pollution as particles become trapped in the alveoli
  • inflammation encourages phagocytes to the area which produce an enzyme that breaks down elastin
  • alveolar walls are destroyed and elasticity of lungs is lost
  • surface area of alveoli is reduced so rate of gaseous exchange decreases
  • symptoms include: shortness of breath, wheezing, increased breathing rate
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