Slum redevelopment - Dharavi/Caracas/Tondo



  • Dharavi is located in Mumbai, India
  • Untill 2011 it was the largest and most highly populated slum in Asia with 1 million people living in a square mile.
  • There have been many plans since 1997 to redevelop Dharavi
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Redevelopment plan

  • 2004 Mumbai's authorities unveiled a plan to completley rehabilitate Dharavi, plan involved construction of 30,000,000 square feet of housing, parks and roads.
  • By increasing residential density replacing shacks with high rise flats the developer will be able to free up a portion of the sire which can then be sold to the commercial market. Profits would then be used to develop new accomodation. 
  • Only people who had lived in the slum since 2000 were to be relocated, est 40% relocated on that criteria
  • Opposition from locals with more than 750 objections as the redevelopment threatens the craft industry which brings in one billion dollars a year. Also removes community spirit.
  • Locals would prefer small improvements to slum including drainage improvements.
  • Based on local and political opposition the scheme did not start, however it is in the process of changing. August 2013 plans were approved by the chief minister and there has been a change in criteria meaning up to 60% will be resettled.
  • In July 2013 Earnest and Young won the bid as management consultant for the project.
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  • Caracas, Venezuela is very densely populated; approx 50% of the population is believed to live in one of the cities ranchos or barrios.
  • Venezuela has earned a certain amount of wealth from its large oil reserves. This meant that in the 1950's, 97 superblocks 15 storeys high were built in Caracas. They were intended to house 180,000 people from the rancheros.
  • Overall the scheme was unsuccessful and encouraged rural-urban migration and rents were too high which led to sub-letting and over crowding. 
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New redevelopment plan

  • Caracas slum-upgrading project which aims to improve the quality of life for the inhabitants of a selectd number of barrios by developing and implementing a community driven, sustainable and replicable infrastructure improvement programme.
  • Project started in 1988 and was funded by the World Bank who predicted costs of $152.9 million.
  • The project had three componants; upgrading, insitutional development and development and operation of a market-based housing loan fund.
  • This is a site and service scheme which is community led enabling slum dwellers to decide their own future as they are provided with the materials needed to make improvements of their choice, ecnouraging community spirit.
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Tondo self-help housing

  • Tondo is the largest and most politically versitile slum in Manila
  • Population of 180,000
  • Aimed to improve the living conditions of 77,000 informal settlers and urban poor. By; providing decent and affordable housing and basic infrastructure and urban services.
  • cost 1/4 of the cost of a previous unsuccessful resettlement scheme.
  • 95% were able to afford new housing
  • project exceeded expectations
  • proves successful providing security of land ownership and basic services.
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