SI I AGREE- End of the Cold War

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Sinatra Doctrine

  • End of the Brezhnev Doctrine
  • Accepted that countries in the Eastern blov could act independantly
  • Caused the end of the Cold WAr because Gorbachev failed to recognise the fragility of the Eastern European regimes
  • Weakened the hard-line leaders of Eastern Europe and allowed people to speak out against them
  • Allowed for protests etc. especially due to glasnost
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  • Thatcher
    • Supported Reagan's anti-Soviet strategy of 'militarised counter revolution'- allowed Reagan to deploy missles in Britain
    • Developed a positive working relationship with Gorby: 'this is a man with whom I can do business' so bridged gap between him and Reagan
  • Pope John Paul II
    • Was Polish- so inspired the large Catholic population of Poland (communism against religion)
    • Inspired the Polish Solidarity with his 'do not be afraid!' speech
    • Visited and showed his support for Solidarity in 1979, 83 and 87
    • However, limited as the Catholic population was only strong in Poland and Baltic states
  • Walesa
    • Started the Solidarity movement in Poland against the price of consumer goods
    • Later became the leader of post communist Poland in 1990
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  • The moral bankruptcy of communism was becoming apparent
  • Weakening support for the Soviet Government
  • Widespread social problems e.g. alcoholism, mental illness, food shortages
  • Each country was supposed to 'find its own path to socialism' but instead rejected communist governments all together
  • Regimes in Eastern Europe relied on poltical repression, censorship and human rights abuses the stay in power
  • 1989 Hungary became the first state to have multi candidature election
  • Helesinki Watch Committee and Charter 77 noting on USSR compliance with the 1975 Helesinki Accords
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Arms Race

  • Reagan had increased the US defence budget by 53% in 1981
  • Average annual US military spending $298.5 billion
  • Pressure of Reagan's SDI
  • Soviet economy could not sustain high levels of military spending
  • By the mid 1980s 25% of the USSR's GDP was put into the military budget
  • Gorbachev recognised the need for economic restructuring and to put more into increasing standards of living
  • Gorbachev propesed a 50% cut in all nuclear weapons at the 1985 Geneva Summit
  • Gorbachev at the October 1986 Reykjavik Summit propsed ti elimiate all nuclear weapons by 2000 if Reagan would stop SDI
  • INF Treaty signed 1987 meaning all Intermediate Range Nuclear Missiles would be scrapped
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  • Came to power in 1985 and replaced th aging gerontocracy, willing to make reforms to improve the domestic problems in the USSR
  • Willing to work with the West and Reagan- reduced mistrust
  • Introduced Perstrokia 1986- economic retructuring (allowed a degree of capitalism) and Glasnost 1986- political openness as part of New Political Thinking
  • Democratisation- made politics more democratic
  • 1989 let European leaders govern without support-people no longer had fear of military intervention from the USSR
  • Didn't believe in military force to supress uprisings- let the people popularity take down the communist system
    • However in Lithuania when they voted independance he authorised a military crackdown which killed 13 people
  • Pushed for an end to nuclear weapons at the summits
  • His reforms recognised that the Soviet communism had weaknesses
  • Still a commited communist and wanted to keep the Soviet Union- was going to sign a new agreement with the Republics in August 1991
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  • US president in 1981, a neo conservative, anti-detente
  • Saw the USSR as the 'evil empire' and increased defence spending
  • A conservative Western view, people that worked with Reagan often promote him as a 'Cold War Warrior'
  • Deployed cruise and Pershing missiles in Europe
  • Supported the Mujahideen in Afghanistan- therefore prolonging the war and draining the Soviets economically
  • USSR could not match his SDI, allowed him to negotiate from a position of strength
    • Howeverm Soviet scientists had apparently proved this was impractical, so it actually imposed little pressure
  • Restricted trade in order to safeguard the West's technological advantage
  • Caused the USSR to grant consessions to Solidarity by reducing finacial aid to Poland
  • Ended the Cold War by exposing economic and moral weaknesses of communist
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Eastern Europe

  • People power
  • Fall of communism in Hungary meant it opened its borders with the West, which meant 10,000 East Germans Sept 1989 fled to the West
  • East German government had to agree to open the border which resulted in it being torn down- symbolic for the end of the Cold War and a divided Europe
  • Germany later became reunifed in 1990
  • Germany inspired many other countries to follow the lead of free elections e.g. Romania in Dec 1989, Poland June 1989
  • Velvet revolution in Czechoslvakia- power handed peacefully to democratically elected governement
  • Rejection of the legitimacy of the Soviet system
  • Failure of Eastern communism caused the end of the Soviet Union
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  • The USSR had put trade restrictions of the USSR's ability to buy Western technology and energy
  • Gorbachev wanted to end the Cold War so as to free up funds to invest in the Soviet economy
  • 1981-86 the USSR was providing Cuba and Vietnam with $4 and $6 billion in aid and oil
  • Mid 1980s the Soviet military budget was 40% of the state budget
  • Discontent in Eastern Europe due to the failure of the economy
  • Living standards massively declined- problems with alcoholism and depression
  • In 1989 the economic gap in GDP between the USSR and USA was $27 billion: $53 billion
  • Soviet's economy was 50% smaller an less productive- too reliant on old industry
  • Soviet economy had been stagnating since the 1970s due to:
    • Cost of the arms race
    • Unrealistic Five Year Plan production targets
    • Poor infrastructure
    • Corrupt elite
  • Soviet industrial output had delinced from 5.25% to 2%
  • Forced the USSR to reconsile with the West to stop arms race and restart trade
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