Short Term Memory & Long Term Memory

  • Differences in STM & LTM in terms of- Capacity, Duration & Encoding 
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Explain differences in STM & LTM in terms of- Capa

Explain the differences in STM & LTM in terms of- Capacity, Duration and Encoding...

 

Short Term Memory-

  • Encoding-Mainly based on sound (Acoustic
  • Capacity-Limited (7+/-2 pieces or chunks of information) 
  • Duration-Short (less than 30 seconds without rehearsal) 

Long Term Memory-    

  • Encoding-Mainly based on meaning (Semantic)
  • Capacity-Unlimited 
  • Duration-Long (potentially a lifetime) 
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Study In Focus for Peterson & Peterson

Study In Focus for Peterson & Peterson (1959)... Investigated the duration of STM...

Method

  • 24 uni participants
  • were given trigrams e.g. ZPS
  • asked to recall them after 3,6,9,12 or 18 seconds (Retention interval)
  • were told to count backwards in 3's (Interference task)

Results

  • after 3 seconds participants could recall 90% of the trigrams
  • after 18 seconds they could only recall 5% correctly
  • 

Conclusion

  •  when rehearsal is prevented, very little can stay in the STM for longer than 18 seconds

Evaluation

  • Remembering trigrams is not something that our memory usually does therfore it lacks Ecological Validity
  • The students were from a university therefore the results do not relate to the general population
  • the students may have higher intelligence than others so the results would differ if a different group of people were choosen  
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