Short Course Physical Education Exam Cards

Short course criteria for the physical education exam 2012.

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The three lifestyle categories of a healthy, activ

A healthy, active lifestyle has a positive effect on physical and mental well being. People who exercise regularly and have an active social life with a network of friends tend to cope better with the stresses of daily life.

There are many varied oppitunities for anyone who is intrested to take part in all kinds of physical activities. Most participants are amatures who pay to take part, although most sport in school is free. Some professionals are paid to take part, to coach or to teach others. These are the lucky few who get paid to do what they love.

The benefits of physical activities fall into three categories, physical as it improves your health, mental as it can reduce stress and related problems and finally socail as it can make friendships and improve team work. 

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The benefits in taking part in physical activity.

Exercise and physical activity help to improve cardiovascular fitness, increase strength, improve body composition and flexibility and tone muscles, all of which can:

Increase fitness, help the individual feel good, help relieve stress and prevent illness, increase self-esteem and confidence, contribute towards good health, contribute to enjoyment of life and provide a mental challenge.

These are the main reasons people take part in physical activities explained:

1) To increase fitness, exercise, training and taking part in physical activities can increase fitness. A programme of planned, well thought out exercises, resistance training and playing a sport is a good way to achieve this. Muscles can be strengthened and made more flexible, becoming more toned in the process.

Exercising and playing expends energy, which uses up calories. This can contribute to a controlled weight loss programme, though this is best achieved alongside a good diet. 

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The benefits in taking part in physical activity.

2)To help an individual feel good, many people take part in physical activities, play sport or embark on an exercise programme because they want to feel good. Exercise can literally make you feel good. It produces serotonin - the 'feel-good' hormone - so it is not just good for the heart, lungs, muscles and bones but good for the mind. Regular physical activity improves fitness and body shape and helps participants to look and feel better. It follows that exercise can help people with low self esteem.

3)To relieve stress and tension, physical activities can provide a distraction from the problems of daily life, and can relieve stress and tension caused by work, school, and family pressures. Although exercise cannot solve problems, it can make them easier to face by providing a complete distraction for a while. 

4)To increase self esteem and confidence, many activities provide a physical challenge. Overcoming such a challenge gives a sense  of achievement which can lead to an increase of self esteem and confidence.

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The benefits in taking part in physical activity.

5)To improve health, people who are physically fitter can cope better if they are ill. This applies not only in common cases like cold and flu but also scientists believe in the case of an serious illness.

6)For enjoyment, most people practice physical activities do it because they enjoy it, people in the sport center tennis courts are probably there because they want to be.

The enjoyment of physical activities can be affected by the reason they are doing it. For example if you are forced to do physical activities you may enjoy it less.

7)For a mental challenge, many sporting challenges show a mental as well as a physical challenge. The London marathon for example is very daunting showing both physical and mental strength. 

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Reasons for taking part in physical activities.

You can benefit from physical activities in a range of ways, for example:

1) Co-operation, many sports are played in teams. Working in groups helps to improve team work and co-operation, which are often necessary in everyday life. Netball, football, hockey and rugby are all good examples of team sports where it is important to support and encourage your team mates.

2)Competition can be thought of as psychological both in terms of mental preparation necessary to complete and in terms of getting away from the stresses of life. When competing most people put aside their problems and concentrate on doing well in their sport.

3)For a physical challenge, coming back to sport after a long time away, perhaps as an adult who has not taken part since leaving school, or taking on a seemingly impossible task, allows for a physical challenge which can be satisfying. 

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Reasons for taking part in physical activities.

4)Aesthetic appreciation, moments in sport are sometimes beautiful, although this aspect of sport may not always be appreciated as much as winning. Beauty may be seen in a brilliantly executed goal or a save in football, try in rugby, a jump shot in basket ball, a passing shot in tennis, a cover drive in cricket or a delicate chip in golf. Often it is the observer who appreciates the performer, although hitting a a cover drive in cricket can feel brilliant, a performer can know when it feels right. Sports like ice skating and gymnastics tend to be thought of in this aspect.

5)Development in friendships and social mixing, taking part in exercise or sport at school or at a club means involvement with other people, including fellow participants, coaches and trainers, and officials. Participants get to know more people, make new friends and develop lasting friendships.

Training alone can be quite lonely and requires motivation and discipline, but most activities present opportunities to mix socially. Many clubs have a strong social side. They are frequently run by volunteers and welcome everyone.   

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Influences on taking part

Many factors affect participation in physical activity. Personal circumstances may influence both choice of activity and the extent to which someone takes part. People who enjoy participation while young are more likely to continue taking part in later life, although their role may change to coach, volunteer or official.

1)People, most of people's choice of activity is, to a greater or lesser extend, influenced by others. People tend to choose he same activities as their friends or other members of their family. 

Family- Children frequently take part in the same physical activities as their parents. They also often follow the same sports and support the same teams.

Peers- The influence of the peer group (people of the same age) is very important. It is much easier to succeed in any activity with the encouragement of friends.

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Influences on taking part

2)Image: Fashion- many activities require the 'right' equipment - e.g. you need boots to play football. Some brands of sport equipment can be very fashionable - and expensive. Partly as a result of media coverage of famous sports people. Sales of sports equipment and influenced by the time of year. For instance the sales of tennis equipment increase around Wimbledon fortnight, and more fitness clothing and equipment are sold around new year. 

Media coverage- The media influences many people's choice of physical activity. Media coverage increases the popularity of many sports. 

3)Cultural factors can effect what sports you can participate in these are, disability, age, gender and race. These are effecting who plays what sport because of common misconceptions in the media and everyday life. Also they can also be affected by the way the public views them. 

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Influences on taking part

4)Resources can effect whether or not people can participate in physical activity. Availability is a large factor as if people want to take part they need susceptible facilities and resources. Location may also be an issue for example if you want to swim but there's no swimming pool nearby it can cause issue. Access is another aspect of resources as they need to be easy to get to if this is by bike, foot or car. They also need to be available at susceptible times.

5)Health and well-being can effect participation in physical activities. FOr example people who have asthma may not be able to take part in activities which involve a lot of running, although swimming might be good for them. However many people go to the gym or play a sport because they enjoy it.

6)Socio-economic can effect participation as many sports are quite expensive as you have to hre facilities, equipment and shoes e.c.t People who cannot afford these has influenced there status hence the economic side.

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Initiatives to keep people involved

1)Government initiatives, recently the government introduced a policy to 'ensure all pupils receive their daily entitlement to two hours of high quality Physical Education per week. This will encourage more participation and improve student's fitness.

2)PE and school sport and club links, the government sep up the PE School Sport and Club Links strategy to increase the take up of sporting opportunities by 5-16 year old's. Sport England and the Youth Sport Trust manage two areas in the PESSCL programme, these provide opportunities  for young people to take part ion sport as performers, leaders, officials and also as volunteers through the Step in to Sport Programme. The PESSCL programme aims to strengthen links between schools and local sports clubs.

3)The organisation sport England, believes sport has the power to change peoples lives. Sport England is committed to creating opportunities for people to start, stay and succeed in sport.

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Initiatives to keep people involved

4)The Youth Sport Trust TOP link, is aimed at encouraging students n the 14-16 age group to organise and manage sports activities and dance festivals in local primary schools and special schools. Students who are taking part in PE GCSE or who have taken awards in, for example, sports leadership are offered the opportunity to put their skills to good use. Their experience as a leader or official may even count towards their GCSE.

5)Active Kids Programme, various supermarkets and other enterprises run voucher programme's in which vouchers collected by parents can be used by schools to buy sporting and other equipment. One example of these is the Active Kids Programme.

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Sports participation pyramid

Foundation:This is at the base of the pyramid. At this stage most participants are likely to be learning/experiencing basic sporting skills. Types are school PE lessons, sports development and multi-sports centers.

Participation:This is the stage when young people begin to participate regularly in a specific activity for enjoyment. Sports development contributes significantly to this stage with its community TOP programme, school festivals, multi-skills clubs and club/school links.

Performance: During this stage young people begin to concentrate on sport specific skills and develop talent in specific sports, quality coaching is an essentail part of player development at this level.

Elite/Excellence: This stage is the peak of the pyramid, where individuals reach sporting excellence. The pyramid narrows here as fewer people take part at this stage. Governing bodies are responsible for coaching at this level (regional and international)

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Health, Exercise, Fitness and Performance

Health is not merely the absence of disease and infirmity. It is a positive state of complete, mental, physical and social well being. Health can be improved by taking part in exercise as it builds up fitness levels. This should allow people to lead an active life and get though their daily life more comfortably. Regular exercise also helps to keep people healthy by preventing illness.

Exercise, although infectious diseases have become less widespread in the western world over the past 100 years, health problems caused by lack of exercise have increased. Such conditions are hypokinetic diseases, and include heart disease, high blood pressure and back pain. Hypokinetic diseases can be relieved by taking exercise. Exercise is also thought to relieve stress and tension; one way is that it can distract people from their everyday lives. Taking par in exercise also increases fitness levels which has a number of different benefits.

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Health, Exercise, Fitness and Performance

Fitness, to most people, being fit means being able to cope with the demands of the environment such as school, college, work and home. People also exercise to improve their fitness, so that they can lead an ative life without die strain on their health and, in some cases so thjat they can participate in sports and physical activities at higher levels. Awareness of the need to exercise and keep fit has grown over the last few years. Fitness also contributes to enhanced performance.

Performance is taking part ion an activity to the best of ones ability, whether its playing football in the park on a Sunday or playing in the premiership. Players at every level must train and remain fit to better their performance. 

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Health Related Exercise

Cardiovascular fitness describes the efficiency of the heart, lungs and blood vessels to deliver oxygen to working muscle tissues, so that prolonged physical work can be maintained. A strong heart and clear blood vessels are necessary to supply the muscles with plenty of oxygen via the blood. Cardiovascular fitness is the most important aspect of health related exercise, as it is closely related with the fitness of the heart and lungs. It enables people to follow a healthy, active lifestyle without undue fatigue, and to continue to take part in sport and be physically active throughout the whole of life. It can be improved by training.

This is the fitness that is required to allow sportsmen and women to play long hard matches in football, netball, rugby, basketball and many other sports. A high level of cardiovascular fitness is essential for all athletes, from skiers to badminton players. It is crucial to developing other types of fitness.

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Health Related Exercise

Muscular Strength enables the lifting of very heavy weights, e.g. weight lifting. It is important if work or a particular sport involves the exertion of great force. Muscular strength can be developed by lifting heavy weights with few repetitions or by high intensity strength of work.

It is particularly important in such activities as weightlifting where the competitor is required to make one massive effort, but it also required in games such as rugby where two packs push against each other in a scum trying to drive the opponents backwards. It is often associated with steroids as they can help develop muscular strength and help the athlete recover quickly and so train harder.

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Health Related Exercise

Muscular Endurance enables muscles to be exercised repeatedly without getting unduly tired, for example in activities such as swimming and running. It is necessary for many sports and physical activities. Some form of training to improve  this area of fitness, such as press ups or sit ups is included in most exercise programme's.

Muscular endurance is often associated with games such as tennis which take a long time and require strong shots at the end of the game as well as at the beginning. It is an important part of general fitness. Since many people need muscular endurance in their everyday lives, doing the daily chores or working in the garden are obvious examples.

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Health Related Exercise

Flexibility is an aspect of health-related exercise which is often neglected and taken for granted until, for instance, we suddenly cannot bend down to tie our shoe laces. It is nonetheless important in both sport and everyday life. It is most often demonstrated by athletes such as gymnasts, but those who play racket games such as badminton also need to be flexible.

Yoga is an activity which can help improve flexibility. It is popular with people of all ages, many whom do not take an active part in other sports.

Body Composition is influenced by genetics, although it can be improved by exercise and diet. Some aspects of body composition such as height are clearly genetic. Elite athletes have to work hard to achieve a good BC for their sport. BC is an important aspect of taking part in PE as it can enhance body shape if a well panned and controlled programme in followed.

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Skill Related Fitness

Agility means changing direction at speed. Running a 100mtre race doesn't require agility but doing floor work exercise in gymnastics does. Imagine a gymnast performing flic-flac and somersaults - they will need to be agile. A rugby player running for the line need agility to try and dodge a defender who is trying to tackle him.

Balance can mean balance while at rest or when on the move. Static balance is keeping the body stable while standing stationary, for example doing a handstand in yoga or the tree position. Archery and clay pigeon shooting are sports which you need static balance. Dynamic balance is maintaining a controlled stable position while moving. Hammer throwing and basket ball are examples of sports where dynamic balance is essential.

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Skill Related Fitness

Coordination, just as there are different types of balance there are different types of coordination. Racket games require hand-eye coordination in order to strike the ball correctly. Most people tend to be better coordinated on one side of their body than the other - they are better with there right or left hand than the other. Generally people who are right handed are right footed and vise versa. Some people may be naturally better right handed and left footed, but in some sports like cricket, they may even bat right handed and bowl left handed. For example, Stuart Broad, and England Cricketer is a right arm bowler but bats with his left hand.

Power increases as a result of an increase in strength or speed. Sportsmen and women may use power to propel themselves and/or to propel an object. For example, spinters need to be powerful to drive their bodies out of the starting blocks when the gun fires to start the race. In athletics throwers need to be powerful so they can move fast across the circle. Football players take a long throw in which need strength and speed but also power at the moment they though the ball.

In many sports players need to be able to jump high, either in a game or in athletics.

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Skill Related Fitness

Reaction time is the time between the trigger being pulled and the gun firing and the athletes starting to run. This is the example most people would have reconised, the stimulus being the sound of the starting gun, but there are many other examples too. For sprinters it is time taken to hear the sound but not so for the time keepers. The gun fires, the smoke appears, the timekeepers start their watches, for them, the stimulus is the sigh of the smoke not the sound of the gun.

A sight stimulus is the signal reaction in most sports. A ball or the shuttle is struck and the receiver has to react to the sight; badminton players practice behind screens so they cannot see the shuttlecock and have to react as it comes over the screen. It improves their reaction time. It is possible to measure reactions and improve them though practice. Anticipation from experience can also help reaction time.

Speed includes leg speed, hand speed, speed of thought. If a sports person could choose just one natural skill related factor it would properly be speed. In some sports a lack of speed can be overcome, but it is an essential ingredient for most champions and it can sometimes make up for a lack of other skills. Speed can be improved with practice e.g. by practicing faster leg speed and arm movements when sprinting on the spot.

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Health-Related Fitness Tests

Copper's / Treadmill 12 minute run test: this tests cardiovascular fitness and muscular endurance in a participants legs. Participants run around a cource / on a treadmill for twelve minutes. They then measure the distance covered and calculate their VO2 Max.

Hand Grip Strength Test: Tests muscular strength in the hand. Take a hand grip dynamometer and squeeze as tightly as possible. Take three recordings. Record the best score.

Sit and Reach Flexibility Test:This test measures the flexibility of some leg muscles. Either use a standard sit and reach box or sit down with legs straight and feet against a bench or wall. Measure how far beond your toes you can reach. Somebody who cannot reach their toes scores a minus total. If you reach your toes you score zero which is average.

Harvard Step Test: This test measure cardiovascular endurance and muscular endurance. Step on and off a bench every 2 second for 5 minutes. Take your pulse at 1,2 and 3 minutes into recovery, to measure your heart rate's recovery. The fitter you are the faster you will reach your resting heart rate.

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Skill-Related Fitness Tests

Illinois Agility Run:This tests agility. A course is set up and participants are required to run around and change direction on numerous occasions. The run is timed and the aim is to complete the tests as quickly as possible.

The Standing Stork Test: This measures a persons balance. Stand on both feet, put your hands on your hips, lift one leg in the air and put you foot on your other knee. Stand there for as long as possible and repeat to improve your balance 

Sergeant Jump Test: This tests leg power. Chalk your fingertips and touch a wall as high as you can reach. Bend your knees and jump touching the wall at the highest point. Measure the increase and score the best of three attempts.

Ruler Drop Test:This tests reaction time. Work with a partner. Your partner holds a 1mtre ruler at 0cm and you place your thumb and fore finger at the 50cm mark. You must catch the ruler as quickly as possible. Measure the distance it took to catch the ruler.

30mtre Sprint:This tests a persons speed. Mark out of 30 mtre distance. When you are signaled to start run as fast as you can and record the time.

Three Ball Juggle: This tests coordination. Using three tennis balls juggle for as long as you can without dropping a ball or stopping. A partner should time you.

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The Principles Of Training - Key Words

Individual needs/Differences: Matching training to the requirements of an individual.

Specificity: Matching the training to the requirements of a activity

Progressive Overload:To gradually increase the amount of overload so that fitness gains occur, but without the potential for injury.

Rest and Recovery: The time required for the repair of damage to the body caused by training or competition. A period of time allotted for recovery.

FITT: Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type (used to increase the amount of work the body does, in order to achieve progressive overload)

Reversibility: Any adaption that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training.

SMART:Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-bound.

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Types Of Training

Interval Training: Periods of hard work followed by periods of rest. For Sprinters, swimmers and games players.

Continuous Training: Steady exercise at a moderate to slow pace. No rests, low intensity. For distance runners, swimmers and cyclists/triathletes.

Fartlek Training: Combines high and low intensity work over different terrains. For games players.

Circuit Training For Fitness: Combines a variety of exercises arranged at different stations in a sports hall/gym. For any performers needing all round fitness, game players and swimmers.

Circuit Training For Skills:Combines a variety of exercises arranged at different stations in a sports hall/gym. For games players, netball, basketball and football.

Weight Training: Working with machine or free weights giving the performer resistance. For athletes, swimmers and game players.

Cross Training: A combination of two or more of the types above. For anyone.

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Aerobic and Anaerobic

Aerobic means with oxygen, if the exercise is not too fast and is steady, the heart can supply all the oxygen the working muscles need.

Anaerobic mans without oxygen, if the exercise is done in short, fast bursts the heart cannot supply the muscles fast enough as the cells are using it to quickly, the body then uses its stores. You then have to continue getting large amounts into your blood stream after exercise as you need to rebuild your stores.

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Analysing Training Sessions

Heart Rate is the number of times that the heart beats per minute.

Resting Heart Rate is the heart rate at rest. It is best taken first thing in the morning before getting out of bed. It is normally between 60-80 beats per minute. A person who exercises regularly may have a heart beat of 50-60 beats per minute, whereas an athlete in full time training could have a resting heart rate of 40-50 beats per minute, or even lower. One of the effects of regular exercise and training is a lower heart rate, so this is a very good measure of fitness. A lower heart rate means that the heart is not having to work very hard to get the blood around the body, this makes it healthier as it is less stressed.

Measuring Heart Rate can be done by checking the radial pulse. This is done by putting the index and middle fingers on the palm side of your wrist just below  the thumb. However the most accurate way is to wear a heart rate monitor.

Working Heart Rate is the measurement of the heart rate during or immediately after exercise. this is an accurate guide to the intensity of the exercise and how hard the heart is working. The higher the working heart rate the harder it is working.

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Analysing Training Sessions

Maximum heart rate (MHR) is calculated according to a persons age. Maximum heart rate can be calculated by subtracting the persons age from 220. The figure 220 is taken as the maximum heart rate of a new born baby.

Target heart rate or target zone can be found by taking 60% of the MHR as the lower threshold and 80% as the upper threshold. If the MHR is 204, the lower threshold will we 122.4 and the upper 163.2. The aim when training is to be within this target zone, which means that the persons is working at a worthwhile level of training.

Recovery Rate is the measure of how long it take for a persons heart rate to go back to resting after a training session. The sooner the heart rate returns to normal the fitter the person is. As the resting heart rate is a good measure of a persons fitness level, a quicker recovery heart rate also suggests a higher fitness level. It is useful to know resting and recovery rates as they are a guide to fitness level and a yardstick by which any increase or decrease in fitness can be measured

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The link between exercise, diet, work and rest

It is important to understand the connections between exercise, diet, work and rest. Each has an equal part to play in ensuring happiness and well being. Work can provide finance, motivation and opportunity and exercise the fitness necessary to work and enjoy life. Adequate rest maintains a balance between the two. Perhaps this is the best summed up by the proverb 'all work and no play make jack a dull boy'. Finally, a balanced diet provides all the essential nutrients for health, fitness, strength and well being.

Diet is an essential part of providing the energy needed to work and exercise, and also to rest and repair tissues. The energy balance must be considered: calories should equal calories out - in other words the number of calories in the diet should equal the number of calories used up.

Active people use up more energy so they need more calories in their diet and more food can provide them. A balanced diet is not just about calories and energy, it is about providing the body with the nutrients it requires to work as effectively as possible. A balanced diet includes seven factors.

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The factors of a balanced diet

These are basic Macro Nutrients

Carbohydrates are important because they give us energy. There are two types starch which had a more complex structure and there for takes longer to break down and sugars that are simple and are used up quickly.

Fats are important because they provide energy and together with glycogen, help muscles to work. Fats are found in butter, margarine and cooking oils. They can also be found in foods such as bacon, cheese, oily fish and nuts.

Protein is important to help build muscles and to repair damaged tissue. Protein is also used to provide energy during extended periods of exercise, such as marathon running, when all the carbohydrate is used up.

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The factors of a balanced diet

These are micro nutrients

Calcium is vital to health, especially during growth in childhood and adolescence. It is important in the formation of bones and teeth, and helps to make bones strong. Bones reach their peak mass, or at their strongest at around 30-35 years of age; after this age there is a gradual decrease. It is important to maintain calcium intake as people get older so as to reduce the likelihood of osteoporosis, a condition which causes bones to be thin and weak. Milk, cheese and cereals are the main source of calcium in the diet.

Iron is essential to the blood because of its links to haemoglobin and its effect on the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and the formation of red blood cells. Iron is therefore very important to a healthy balanced lifestyle as without it it would not be possible for the blood to carry oxygen about the body. Lack of iron can lead to a condition called anaemia which causes tiredness, lethargy, shortness of breath and palpitations (irregular heart beat). Many foods contain iron but iron in meat is absorbed more easily 

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