short term climate change

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Walker circulation

  • Ocean temperatures exceed 28 in W.Pacific creating low.p system over SE.Asia, drawing warm and moist air causing heavy convectional rainfall.
  • E.Pacific is cooler menaing high pressure due to upwelling of cold nutrient rich water. They are also drier as prevailing winds blow from the land. Creating the Atacama desert in Peru. 
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El Nino

  • every 4-7 years.
  • The sea temps that exceed 28 extend much further eastwards.
  • trade winds weaken and reverse.
  • affecting the sea surf temps and the atmosphere air mass that passes over it.
  • Heaviest rainfall is now over the E.Pacific with SE.Asia much drier and can even cause dought.
  • Upwelling of cold water off S.America is reduced, allowing water temps to rise by 2-6.
  • warm water lacks oxygen and causes a shortage of nutrients and plankton, menaing fish die.
  • With less marine life to take it up CO2 concentrations increase, contributing to the GH effect.
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El Nino


  • Warment El Nino was between 1982/83
  • Temps rose by 6, causing drought 83/84 in sarhel and S.Africa
  • Britain and W.Europe become warmer and wetter and storms in California aswell as cold conditions in N.America.
  • UK had warmest December on record during December 2015 recording a mean temp of 8.
  • Warmer water in S.Pacific pushes colder towards the Antarctic affecting global ocean circulations.
  • Warmer E.Pacific pushes Jet stream over california bringing wet and stormy weather to a nornmally dry climate.
  • Fires in Indonesia destroy 100,000 homes. 
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