Physical Factors affecting Settlements
Water Supply- Living near water i.e. Lakes and Rivers. Also, living at the bottom of a hill.
Aspect and Shelter- In the Nortern Hemisphere, more settlements are situated on south slopes. This is because it gets more sun and is blocked from the northerly breeze.
Defence- In the early years, the castles were built o the highest point, so they could see evertything. Also, some were put on islands, for obvious reasons.
Human Factors affecting Settlements
Communications- Settlements used to be built near rivers that could easily be crossed. An example of this is London. They were also built on ports, for obvious reasons. An example of this is Dover.
Resources- Early settlers relied upon Timber for both Fuel and Building material. They could be built near woodland and mining towns.
Nucleated- Individual houses grouped closely together. They often from at crossroads.
Dispersed- Individual buildings spread out. These are often rural area's.
Linear- Houses on either side of the road
Counter- Urbanisation is the movement out of cities to rural areas.
Ø Housing prices increases
Ø Local resentment caused
Ø Increase in population puts pressure and more strain on services
Ø Improvements in services-e.g. gas mains, cable TV supporters
Ø Supports local schools
Ø Supports some local facilities e.g. pubs although others may close
Depopulation of Remote rural areas
Young people move out of these areas to find work
The remote area's. like the Highlands of Scotland, have many older people living there. When they all die, the population will decrease, as the young people would off gone on the find jobs in other area's.
Also, the fact that not many people live their means that there will less work. Shops will close, and companies will move away. This means that more people will leave, as there is no where to go to get daily nesecities.
Land use in urban area's
Land use in urban areas in the UK has shown a dramatic change over the last 3 years. This is due to two significant trends:
There has been an increase demand for houses
There has been deindustrialisation with manufactoring moving from urban areas in the UK to LIC's where production costs are much cheaper.
The reasons for the increase in the demand for housing are social, economic and political.
Land use in urban areas- Social reasons
People are now marrying later in life
There are more divorces, so families are not living as a group, but in two different homes
There is an ageing population- many elderly people live with their spouse until they are very old, this means more houses are neede for the younger generation.
British society has changed, meaning that grandparents no longer live with their families, they live alone and in their own homes.
Land use in urban areas- Economic reasons
The population is now wealthier than ever before. This means people can leave home earlier, and not live with their parents.
Young people do not save money, they just rent houses instead of saving up until they have a deposit.
House price's have gone up, meaning more people are living in smaller dwellings.
People have children at a later age, so they dont require a bigger house until then.
Land use in urban areas- Political reasons
The government predicted that more people will be in the UK by 2021. This is correct. However, this means more people will need homes.
The government expect many of them to go to Cornwall, so more house will need to be built in rural areas, which will not make people happy.
The advantages and disadvantages of brownfield sit
Planning permission is easier to get, the government is actively encouraging the use of these sites
Infrastructure such as gas, electricity and water is already present
Easier to market because of access to entertainment and other facilities
No building on greenfield sites so lessens urban sprawl.
Complete environmental survey needed because of past usage is costly and time consuming
Perception of contaminated environment puts off prospective buyers
Cities may have social problems- crime, anti-social behaviour
The advantages and disadvantages of greenfield sit
Originally unoccupied therefore developers can build what they wish
Cheaper land due to being further from city centre
Easy market to potential buyers due to pleasant environment
Access to the development is easier, as roads are not congested
Infrastructure such as gas, electricity and water will not be present
Building could disturb natural habitats and wildlife
Living on the edge of the city may increase the commute to work for people
People may not want to live out of the city because of their social life
Redevelopment- This is when buildings in a city, which are no longer of use, are demolished and replaced with buildings that are in current demand
Renewal- This is when old buildings are renovated and brought up to date, combining the best of the old with the new
Brownfield Site- This is an area within a city which is no longer used. It may contain old factories and housing, or it may have been cleared ready for development
Brownfield potential- The number of brownfield sites which are available for redevelopment within a city.
Greenbelt- This is an area around a city which is composed if farmland and recreational land. There are strict controls on the development of this land. Its purpose is to control the growth of the cities.
Greenfield Site- This is an area on the edge of the city which has never been developed in any way.
Reasons for the rapid growth in urban areas
Urban areas in LIC's have experienced a rapid growth since the 1950's. There are two main reasons for this rapid growth:
The migration from rural to urban areas caused by : Lack of jobs in rural areas, salaries are lower in rural area, the development of TNC's and other industry providing jobs in urban areas and the perception of a better life, including education.
The high natural increase in population caused by: the youth of the migrants- many of them are of child bearing age, better medical facillities in urban areas, higher life expectancy and the lack of contraception and the knowledge of it
Case study: The effect of rapid growth on a LIC ur
The rapid increase has caused Cairo many problems: