Settlement Change

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  • Created by: Kane Owen
  • Created on: 24-06-12 12:08

Physical Factors affecting Settlements

Water Supply- Living near water i.e. Lakes and Rivers. Also, living at the bottom of a hill.

Aspect and Shelter- In the Nortern Hemisphere, more settlements are situated on south slopes. This is because it gets more sun and is blocked from the northerly breeze.

Defence- In the early years, the castles were built o the highest point, so they could see evertything. Also, some were put on islands, for obvious reasons.

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Human Factors affecting Settlements

Communications- Settlements used to be built near rivers that could easily be crossed. An example of this is London. They were also built on ports, for obvious reasons. An example of this is Dover. 

Resources- Early settlers relied upon Timber for both Fuel and Building material. They could be built near woodland and mining towns.

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Settlement Shapes

Nucleated- Individual houses grouped closely together. They often from at crossroads.

Dispersed- Individual buildings spread out. These are often rural area's.

Linear- Houses on either side of the road


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Counter- Urbanisation

Counter- Urbanisation is the movement out of cities to rural areas. 

Negative effects:

Ø  Housing prices increases

Ø  Local resentment caused

Ø  Increase in population puts pressure and more strain on services


Positive effects:

Ø  Improvements in services-e.g. gas mains, cable TV supporters

Ø  Supports local schools

Ø  Supports some local facilities e.g. pubs although others may close

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Depopulation of Remote rural areas

Young people move out of these areas to find work

The remote area's. like the Highlands of Scotland, have many older people living there. When they all die, the population will decrease, as the young people would off gone on the find jobs in other area's. 

Also, the fact that not many people live their means that there will less work. Shops will close, and companies will move away. This means that more people will leave, as there is no where to go to get daily nesecities. 

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Land use in urban area's

Land use in urban areas in the UK has shown a dramatic change over the last 3 years. This is due to two significant trends:

There has been an increase demand for houses

There has been deindustrialisation with manufactoring moving from urban areas in the UK to LIC's where production costs are much cheaper.

The reasons for the increase in the demand for housing are social, economic and political.

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Land use in urban areas- Social reasons

People are now marrying later in life

There are more divorces, so families are not living as a group, but in two different homes

There is an ageing population- many elderly people live with their spouse until they are very old, this means more houses are neede for the younger generation.

British society has changed, meaning that grandparents no longer live with their families, they live alone and in their own homes. 

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Land use in urban areas- Economic reasons

The population is now wealthier than ever before. This means people can leave home earlier, and not live with their parents.

Young people do not save money, they just rent houses instead of saving up until they have a deposit.

House price's have gone up, meaning more people are living in smaller dwellings.

People have children at a later age, so they dont require a bigger house until then. 

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Land use in urban areas- Political reasons

The government predicted that more people will be in the UK by 2021. This is correct. However, this means more people will need homes.

The government expect many of them to go to Cornwall, so more house will need to be built in rural areas, which will not make people happy.  

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The advantages and disadvantages of brownfield sit


Planning permission is easier to get, the government is actively encouraging the use of these sites

Infrastructure such as gas, electricity and water is already present

Easier to market because of access to entertainment and other facilities

No building on greenfield sites so lessens urban sprawl.


Complete environmental survey needed because of past usage is costly and time consuming

Perception of contaminated environment puts off prospective buyers

Cities may have social problems- crime, anti-social behaviour

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The advantages and disadvantages of greenfield sit


Originally unoccupied therefore developers can build what they wish

Cheaper land due to being further from city centre

Easy market to potential buyers due to pleasant environment

Access to the development is easier, as roads are not congested 


Infrastructure such as gas, electricity and water will not be present

Building could disturb natural habitats and wildlife

Living on the edge of the city may increase the commute to work for people

People may not want to live out of the city because of their social life 

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Redevelopment- This is when buildings in a city, which are no longer of use, are demolished and replaced with buildings that are in current demand

Renewal- This is when old buildings are renovated and brought up to date, combining the best of the old with the new

Brownfield Site- This is an area within a city which is no longer used. It may contain old factories and housing, or it may have been cleared ready for development

Brownfield potential- The number of brownfield sites which are available for redevelopment within a city.

Greenbelt- This is an area around a city which is composed if farmland and recreational land. There are strict controls on the development of this land. Its purpose is to control the growth of the cities.

Greenfield Site- This is an area on the edge of the city which has never been developed in any way.   

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Reasons for the rapid growth in urban areas

Urban areas in LIC's have experienced a rapid growth since the 1950's. There are two main reasons for this rapid growth:

The migration from rural to urban areas caused by : Lack of jobs in rural areas, salaries are lower in rural area, the development of TNC's and other industry providing jobs in urban areas and the perception of a better life, including education.

The high natural increase in population caused by: the youth of the migrants- many of them are of child bearing age, better medical facillities in urban areas, higher life expectancy and the lack of contraception and the knowledge of it

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Case study: The effect of rapid growth on a LIC ur

The rapid increase has caused Cairo many problems:

Noise pollution

Air pollution

Land pollution

Water pollution

Housing problems

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Thanks a lot for this! - Very helpful :) 

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