- Created by: maryamhamid
- Created on: 21-11-18 12:13
Used to separate a dissolved solute from a solution. Works because the solvent has a lower boiling point than the solute.
- Solution is heated; solvent evaporates
- Solvent gas travels to a condenser where it is cooled and condensed
- Solvent left in the beaker
Used to separate salt from water.
Used to separate liquids from a mixture of liquids. Works because each liquid has a different boiling point.
- Mixture is heated until it is a gas
- Vapour rises up the fractioning column, which is hotter at the top and cooler at the bottom
- Vapours condense when they reach their boiling point
- Vapours travel down individual condensers; collected as liquids
Used to separate ethanol and water, or fractions of different fuels from crude oil.
Used to sepatate an insoluble solid from a liquid. Works because pores in filter paper are only big enough for small molecules or dissolved ions to pass through, not large insoluble solid particles.
- Mixture poured into a funnel lined with filter paper
- Liquid molecules pass through the paper
- Solid molecules left behind in the filter paper
Used to separate excess reactant from a solution.
Used to produce solid crystals from a solution.
- Heat solution in an evaporating basin until almost all the solvent has evaporated
- Let the remaining solution cool
- Remove excess liquid and leave crystals to dry
Used to separate mixtures of soluble substances. Works because the different substances move up the chromatography paper at different speeds, so they separate.
- Pencil line drawn on chromatography paper
- Dyes being tested are spotted along the line
- Paper lowered into solvent above the pencil line
- Dyes travel up the paper, producing spots of each substance in their mixture at different heights
Used to find the substances used in dyes, food colouring and plant pigments.