Minor Sentence: A sentence with no verb, but can still be understood.
Simple Sentence: A single clause with a subject and a verb.
Compound Sentence: All of the clauses in a sentence can be understood independantly.
Complex Sentence: Only one main clause, with the rest of the clauses being dependant on it to make sense.
Sentence Function and Aspect
Declarative: Sentences that state something and convey information.
Interrogative: A question, will always end in a question mark.
Declarative Question: A declarative made to sound like an interrogative by the intonation of the voice.
Imperative: A sentence that gives a command, but not necessarily in a "harsh" way.
Exclamatory: Always ends in an exclamation mark, expresses extreme emotion
Perfective Aspect: The action is complete.
Progressive Aspect: The action is still happening.
Personal Pronoun: Used to refer to anything that is alive or has a personality, e.g "I", "you", "he" etc.
Possessive Pronoun: Shows possession, and avoids needless repitition, e.g "mine", "yours" etc.
Reflexive Pronoun: If it ends in "-self" or "-selves" it is a reflexinve pronoun.
Demonstrative Pronoun: Normally indicate spacial relationship, e.g "this" or "these" will show something is reachable, "that" or "those" will show you that they are further away.
Interrogative Pronoun: Used to replace an unknown noun, for example: who, whom, whose, what, which, or when.
Attributive Adjective: Describes a feature of the noun, and is factual.
Evaluative Adjective: Offers a judgement or opinion on the noun in question.
Comparative Adjective: Offers a comparison, for example "bigger" or "more aquatic". The suffix -er is normally added.
Superlative Adjective: The suffix -est is added to show that something is the most of something. In some cases you would say "the most aquatic" instead of "aquatic-est" for example.
Predicative Adjective: The adjective comes after the noun it is describing, and a stative verb, for example "The house was cold."
Dynamic Verb: An action, process or activity, something physical needs to happen.
Stative Verb: Describes a state rather than an action, nothing physical has to happen, eg. "love".
Phrasal Verb: Actions that require more than one word to describe an activity, for example "believe in ghosts" rather than "believe ghosts".
Auxiliary Verb: Comes before the main verb in a sentence and almost helps the main verb by combining with them, eg. "I have finished my project."
- An auxiliary verb can be the main verb in a sentence in the case of the copula verb, to be. It is always changing, for example: am, are, is, was etc.
Modal Auxiliary Verb: Verbs that express ability, ambiguity, permission or necessity, there are ten in English: can, could, may, might, must, ought, shall, should, will and would.
- They alter the meaning of the sentence, for example: You ______ achieve good grades.
Adverbs of Comment: Express the writer's opinion: honestly, clearly, surely etc.
Adverbs of Frequency: Tell us how often something is done: frequently, never, normally etc.
Adverbs of Manner: Discusses in what manner something is done: quickly, silently, happily etc.
Adverbs of Place: Tell us where something happens: upstairs, away, everywhere etc.
Adverbs of Degree: Describe the degree to which something is done: very, almost etc.
Adverbs of Time: When something occurs and for how long: yesterday, three days ago etc.