Sentences, Word Types and Aspect

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Sentence Types

Minor Sentence: A sentence with no verb, but can still be understood.

Simple Sentence: A single clause with a subject and a verb.

Compound Sentence: All of the clauses in a sentence can be understood independantly.

Complex Sentence: Only one main clause, with the rest of the clauses being dependant on it to make sense.

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Sentence Function and Aspect

Declarative: Sentences that state something and convey information.

Interrogative: A question, will always end in a question mark.

Declarative Question: A declarative made to sound like an interrogative by the intonation of the voice.

Imperative: A sentence that gives a command, but not necessarily in a "harsh" way.

Exclamatory: Always ends in an exclamation mark, expresses extreme emotion

Perfective Aspect: The action is complete.

Progressive Aspect: The action is still happening.

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Personal Pronoun: Used to refer to anything that is alive or has a personality, e.g "I", "you", "he" etc.

Possessive Pronoun: Shows possession, and avoids needless repitition, e.g "mine", "yours" etc.

Reflexive Pronoun: If it ends in "-self" or "-selves" it is a reflexinve pronoun.

Demonstrative Pronoun: Normally indicate spacial relationship, e.g "this" or "these" will show something is reachable, "that" or "those" will show you that they are further away.

Interrogative Pronoun: Used to replace an unknown noun, for example: who, whom, whose, what, which, or when.

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Attributive Adjective: Describes a feature of the noun, and is factual.

Evaluative Adjective: Offers a judgement or opinion on the noun in question.

Comparative Adjective: Offers a comparison, for example "bigger" or "more aquatic". The suffix -er is normally added.

Superlative Adjective: The suffix -est is added to show that something is the most of something. In some cases you would say "the most aquatic" instead of "aquatic-est" for example.

Predicative Adjective: The adjective comes after the noun it is describing, and a stative verb, for example "The house was cold."

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Dynamic Verb: An action, process or activity, something physical needs to happen.

Stative Verb: Describes a state rather than an action, nothing physical has to happen, eg. "love".

Phrasal Verb: Actions that require more than one word to describe an activity, for example "believe in ghosts" rather than "believe ghosts".

Auxiliary Verb: Comes before the main verb in a sentence and almost helps the main verb by combining with them, eg. "I have finished my project."

  • An auxiliary verb can be the main verb in a sentence in the case of the copula verb, to be. It is always changing, for example: am, are, is, was etc.

Modal Auxiliary Verb: Verbs that express ability, ambiguity, permission or necessity, there are ten in English: can, could, may, might, must, ought, shall, should, will and would.

  • They alter the meaning of the sentence, for example: You ______ achieve good grades. 
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Adverbs of Comment: Express the writer's opinion: honestly, clearly, surely etc.

Adverbs of Frequency: Tell us how often something is done: frequently, never, normally etc.

Adverbs of Manner: Discusses in what manner something is done: quickly, silently, happily etc.

Adverbs of Place: Tell us where something happens: upstairs, away, everywhere etc.

Adverbs of Degree: Describe the degree to which something is done: very, almost etc.

Adverbs of Time: When something occurs and for how long: yesterday, three days ago etc.

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