Sentence Function

  • Created by: livvvd26
  • Created on: 28-03-19 07:24

Identifying the Subject

  • Who/What Verb
  • Who/what likes (green) bananas (out of those high trees)
    • The monkey likes bananas
    • The big monkey likes green bananas
    • The big monkey on the top of the rock likes green bananas out of those high trees
  • Changing the subject from singular to plural changes the verb
    • The monkey likes bananas
    • The monkeys like bananas 
  • The train reaches the platform.
    • What reaches the platform? The train
  • Breakfast tastes better after a walk.
    • What tastes better after a walk? Breakfast
  • The new hoover is broken.
    • What is broken? The new hoover
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Identifying the (Direct) Object

  • John loves Mary
    • Who does John love? Mary
  • What does the (big) monkey (on the top of the rock) like?
    • The monkey likes bananas
    • The big monkey likes green bananas
    • The big monkey on the top of the rock likes green bananas out of those high trees

Object or Subject? Using subject- verb agreement

The train reaches the platform

  • We can use questions to check the subject:
    • What reaches the Platform? The train (S)
    • What does the train reach? The platform(O)
  • We can use subject-verb agreement to check as well:
    • The train reaches the platforms.
    • The trains reach the platform
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Identifying the Indirect Object

Some verbs require an indirect object.

  • In their usual form these verbs need 2 objects
  • The indirect object is some sort of ‘recipient’ or ‘beneficiary’ because it benefits from the action in the verb
  •  I send a letter to my gran
    • What do I send? a letter (O)
    • Who am I sending a letter to? My gran (IO)
  • I give him a bottle
    • What do I give him? A bottle (O)
    • Who do I give a bottle? Him (IO)
  • I give to charity
    • What do I give to? Charity (IO) (money =O, implied)
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Identifying the Subject Complement

 The complement is the answer to the ‘object’ question when there is a copular/linking verb*

  • John is a fire man
  • What is John ? A fire man
  • John is (very) happy
  • What is John ? (very) happy

The subject complement can be a Noun Phrase or an Adjective Phrase

*copular/linking verbs are most usually the verb “to be” (is/are etc.) but can also include verbs like “seem”, “feel” , “seem”, “appear”, “become” etc

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Identifying Verbs

  • Verbs can change for person/tense
  • Verbs can sometimes be accompanied by auxiliary verbs.
  • Every sentence needs at least one verb. We don’t cover sentences with 2 (or more) main verbs yet (e.g. ’I like to swim’, ’I thought he was happy’)
  • Some verbs can carry a preposition with them as part of their ‘core’ form, these are ‘phrasal verbs’. E.g.:
    • Looking for = searching: No use looking here for your glasses
    • Juice up = enliven: He always juices the party up a bit.
    • Cut down = reduce: I try to cut down on alcohol
    • Put up with = tolerate: She’s put up with it too long.
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Identifying Adverbials

Adverbials answer the how, where, when type questions like Adverbs, but they can consist of more than one word. Sentences can have many Adverbials

  • Yesterday John was in the garden
  • Where was John? In the garden
  • When was John in the garden? Yesterday
  • He was walking so fast to the fridge.
  • How was he walking to the fridge? So fast
  • Where was he walking (to) so fast? To the fridge
  • The monkey really likes bananas.
  • How (much) does the monkey like bananas? Really(*)
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Sentence Types

• All simple declarative sentences have:

  • Mandatory: 1 subject
  • Mandatory: 1 verb (group) (aux V + main V count as 1 e.g. ‘is taking’ ‘can talk’ ‘could see’)
  • Possibly: 1 object
  • Possibly: 1 (subject) complement
  • Possibly: 1 indirect object
  • Possibly: many adverbials (adverbials sometimes can be placed before the subject e.g. ‘Today she goes to school) 
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Declarative Sentences

  • Subject Verb               Who/what      V 
  • S          V                     I, Karen     swim
  • Subject Verb Object     Who/what       V          who/what  
  • S          V       O                I               like           apples
  • Subject Verb(cop) Compliment       Who/what         V           who/what
  • S           V cop       C                       My name            is              Julia

                                                            I                       am            happy

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