Sensory and motor neurones

A set of revision cards that outline the structure and functions of neurones.

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Transmit an action potential around the body

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Types of neurones

  • sensory neurones - carry action potentials from sensory receptors to central nervous system
  • motor neurones - carry action potential from central nervous system to an effector e.g. muscle/gland
  • relay - connect sensory  and motor neurones
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Features of neurones

  • Very long - can transmit action potentials over long distances
  • Cell surface membrane has many gated ion channels - control entry / exit of Sodium, Potassium and Calcium ions
  • Sodium potassium pumps - use ATP to actively transport Sodium ions out of cell and Potassium ions in
  • Maintain a potential difference across cell surface membranes - 
  • Surrounded by myelin sheath - insulates the neurone from electrical activity in nearby cells
  • Cell body contains nucleus, many mitochondria and ribosomes - mitochondria enable active transport to be carried out
  • Motor neurones have their cell body in the CNS and have a long axon - this carries the action potential out to the effector
  • Sensory neurones have a long dendron - carries action potential to cell body just outside the CNS. Short axon - carries action potential into CNS
  • Numerous dendrites in both - to connect to other neurones.
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