Types of Self-Report
- Written methods of gaining data
- Completed by the participant
- Researcher is not needed during completion
- Can be paper-based or electronic
- Direct verbal questionning by an interviewer to an interviewee
- Can be done in person or over phone
- 3 structures of interviews, structured, semi-structured and unstructured
Links to core studies
Loftus and Palmer - Questionnaire on broken glass / speed estimates
Grant et al - SAQ and MCQ questionnaire
Bandura - Rating of aggression from teachers to make the matched pairs
Chaney - Parents reporting the childs behaviour / questionnaire
Freud - Father reported Littles Han's behaviour to Freud
Baron-Cohen - The eyes task / all tasks
Structured - When there is a fixed set of questions and responses
Advantages - Using the same q's makes the it standardised, replicable and easy to compare
Disadvantages - Cannot ask questions - Prevent from clarifying questions
Semi-structured - Interviewer given guidelines on questions
Advantages - Allows extra questions to be asked - Able to clarify misunderstanding
Disadvantages - Extra questions may vary between participants, making comparison hard
Unstructured - No fixed questions or ways of answering
Advantages - Allows for more depth and interesting topics to be discussed
Disadvantages - Can be difficult to compare responses from different participants
Types of questions
Open questions - Where participants can answer in whatever style they chose
Advantages - Easier and quicker to collect - Easily analysed and compared
Disadvantages - Can force an option to be picked - Lacks reason why an option was picked
Closed questions - Where participants are given a set answer to pick from
Advantages - Provides more detailed data - Doesnt force participants to give a certain response
Disadvantages - Time consuming to complete and analysis - Responses may not be relevent to what researchers desired
Used to measure attitudes to certain statements and whether a participant agrees, disagrees with the statement etc.
Owning a pet gives support and happiness
Strongly agree / Agree / Undecided / Disagree / Strongly disagree
Participants have to respond on a numberical scale as to how much they agree. They make use of polar opposite terms, e.g. big, small.
Big ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ Small
Confidentiality - Respondants may be ask names, age or sex which should avoided.
Deception - Irrevlant filler questions may be used to decieve the participants of the aim of the experiment.
Harm - Asking sensitive / personal questions may cause psychological harm to the participant.
Informed consent - May feel pressured into answering questions when an interviewer asks them.
Interviewer bias - The way the interviewer behaves may make someone feel uncomfortable