MEDC that managed impacts well
Loma Preita, San Fran - October 17th, 1989, 5.04 pm, magnitude 7.1
- Occured due to slip in the San Andreas fault (conservative plate margin).
- Largest earthquake to occur in the San Fransisco Bay area since 1906.
- Death toll = 62, Number injured = 3757
- Cost = approximately $8 billion
- 22 structural fires occured
- Many buildings were extensively damaged as old buildings were built with unreinforced masonry
- Flood plain of San Lorenzo river subject to intense shaking and liquefaction.
- Interrupted the baseball 'world series'
- Fire crews helped to rescue people trapped on the freeway and helped put out fires
- The National Guard patrolled the streets to prevent looting.
- Extra boat transport was provided to trasnsport people across the bay.
- Electricity was restored within 2 days.
- The Cyprus freeway was rebuilt using aseismic design and reopened 10 years later.
- They recieved $3 billion in aid from the US government and from private donations.
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MEDC that poorly managed impacts
L'Aquila Italy - 6th April 2009, 3.32am, 5.8Mw
- Caused by movement along the north-south fault line along the Apennine mountain range.
- Several aftershocks following the main earthquake (some measure 5 on the Richter scale) - these hampered rescue efforts and caused further damage.
- Cost estimation = $15 billion
- Thousands of buildings destroyed, including part of the city hospital.
- Water pipes were broken causing landslides and fires caused further damage.
- Death toll = 300 (mostly due to collapsed buildings).
- Injuries = 1500
- 70,000 made homeless.
- Thousands had to move away to find jobs.
- Strict building regulations were not always met and many new buildings were poorly built (e.g. San Salvatore Hospital should have withstood the earthquake, but collapsed).
- People formally complained that seismologists working in the area didn't predict the earthquake and requested a criminal investigation.
- Italy has a Civil Protection Department that trains volunteers to help with things like rescue operations.
- 12,000 rescue and support workers helped with the response.
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LEDC that managed impacts well
Gujarat India - January 26, 2001, 8.46am, 7.7 Mw
- Caused by Indo-Australian and Eurasian plate moving towards each other.
- Death toll - 20,000
- Injuries - 166,000
- 600,000 left homeless
- In built up areas, modern buildings were shake but mostly survived.
- The Government suspected that as some new buildings collapsed, dodgy building methods had been used and many builders/architects were charged with culpable murder.
- Gujarat was the second most industrialised state in India, with well developed industries.
- An Oxfam team of emergency specialists provided aid.
- There was a rehabilitation programme that focussed on the long-term effects on public health.
- Oxfam also helped repair broken water pipes in order to ensure a safe water supply to the people.
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LEDC that poorly managed impacts
Haiti - 12 January 2010, 4.53pm, 7.0 Mw
- Caused by the North American plate sliding past the Caribbean plate at a conservative plate margin.
- Death toll - 316,000
- Transport and communication links were badly damaged.
- Hospitals and schools badly damaged along with the airport control tower.
- 1 in 5 people lost their jobs and Haiti's clothing industry was badly affected.
- Bodies in the street led to disease like cholera.
- It was difficult for Haiti to recieve aid due to issues at the airport and poor management.
- Poor health and sanitation along with looting became a problem.
- $100 million in aid given by the USA and $330 million by the EU.
- There was a lack of immediate aid through poor planning.
- 1 million people still without homes a year after the earthquake.
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