Secularization For and Against

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What evidence is there for decling church attendan

The church is a greying population, which also has come under scrutiny by BRIELEY who states that the church is age bias, with the increasing percentage of older congregations matching the decreasing percentage of younger populations.

Younger generations dont see the church as appealing.

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why isnt the church attractive for young people?

Because of the formality and rules, they arent able to express themselves in ways they would like.

Sundays are often taken up by work or other priorities there for some people just dont have the time to attend church.

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What do Bruce and Wallis say about secularization?

They say that secularization is rooted in modernity and develops with three variables;


religion has no place in contemporary society, people are more concerned with their material wellbeing than their religios welfare.


The seperation of the church from wider society, not everything is 'god driven'


One or more religon is accepted in the context of either a indiviudal or a society.

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What does Davie suggest?

Davies suggests that the UK isnt guided by the kinds of collective moral codes and community emphasis once promoted by the church, it isnt seen as a 'sin' if a family doesnt goto church, it isnt a priority

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What is desacrilization?

This is the disenchantment of the world, rational thoughts and scientific explanations has made the world loose its magic and these explanations may turn people from religon as the 'unknown' is lost.

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What is individualism?

Indivualism is where a persons thoughts become more about minimizing personal harm than taking on the thoughts and feelings of the wider christian community.

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What are fundamentalist groups?

Fundamentalist groups are strict traditional organisations which have usually branched off from the less strict religion to intensely practice the religon, some groups use violence.

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What is the marketization of religion?

Religion are having to appeal to older and newer generations there for the religous system is like a market where people can pick and mix from different religions and can practice them informally or formally.

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What is vicarious religion?

This is where a person, usually a parent lives their religous life through their children, they may force them to attend the church and only let them communicate and socialize with people of the same thoughts.

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What is the privatization of religon?

Relgion has become something people arent as open about, they prefer to keep their religion privatized and may even practice their religon informally in their own home, this would make counting people still attending religious services difficult as it doesnt cosider those who keep their religions private.

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Both NRM and NAM promote empowerment and other world benefits, which may be what makes them appeal to the younger generations, the fact that more younger generations commit to new age ideas is a sign that secularization isnt declining but religon is changing as generations change (social construct)

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What is individuation?

This is the process people go throught to find themselves spiritually, for those joining terror groups such as ISIS it is called the 'path of terror' but for those who are wanted to be a buddhist this route is called the 'enlightment'

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What did Davys say?

Davys said people believe but dont belong, this means they believe in a god but they dont formally practice their religion by going to church but this doesnt make them any less religous than someone who does.

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What is the functional definition of religion?

The functional definition of religon is where religion can be related to anything that fulfils what a religion does, for example some people live for the gym they base when they eat, what they do around the gym and can attend every day, this gives them the same feelings as a person going to church.

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What is the substantive definition of religion?

substantive definitions of religion focus on the content or religious beliefe in god or the supernatural.  they are exclusive, they draw a clear line between religious and non religious beliefs, to be a religion a set of beliefs must be set around god or the supernatural.

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what is existential security?

religion provides exisential security for those in need, in poverty stricken communitys where things arent going right, they need something to tell them that in the end it is going to be worth while, this gives communities hope and helps them endure the harsh reality of life

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cultural defence?

seeing a once chrisitan community change and become a community who arent as close and who are all of different faiths can trigger a cultural defence with the original community members, they may create the christian community again but with stricter beliefs.

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Malinowski is a functionalist writer who states that people use religion in times of need which is true. people turn to religion when they are going through a life crisis as religion can give a person fulfillment where as rational thoughts and science cant.

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what has over powered the religious thoughts?

rational thoughts, this shows that as a society we are more rational, if you have fallen over and cant walk we dont sit and pray for it to get better we go to the hospital and get a cast, these rational thoughts are what dissproves the statement that religion is still rife.

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