Section B - G544

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QA) Describe key principles, approach that uses...method often associated... common issues..[4]

QB) 2 research that contribute to the... (1AS+1A2). Describe aim, research method, sample, results. This research is relevant to...because...(link things from research to points made in A) [8] 

QC) 2 Strengths and 2 weaknesses: Point...because.., Evidence (what it did and how its relevant), Explain why its a strength/weakness in means of psychology [12]  

QD) Compare in 2 accurate points (1 similarity+1 difference / 2sim / 2 dif).Point (similar because...), Evidence for comparision from 1 piece of research (eg, social), Evidence for comparision from another piece of research (eg, cognitive), Explain what the comparison means in psychology [8] 

QE) Unpredictable-about contribution to everyday life (3 points with evidence, 4 without)2 for 2 against

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Social Approach

A) Assumes our behaviour is influenced by the presence, attitudes and actions of others which can be actual, imagined or implied. Emphasises the importance of social contexts and our environments in shaping our behaviour as opposed to individual factors.
Associated methods: Fields and observations
Common Issues: High ecological validity, Nurture, Situational, Useful, Reductionist, Ethics

 B) Pilivain, in a field using observations, helping behaviour, new York subway, 4450 opportunity ps,2 female ps observers, a model, a confederate, collapse after 70 secs, drunk smelt of alcohol holding a bottle in paper bag/ill with a cane, male + race varied. 103 trials-help was given generally without the intervention of the model but ill helped 100% and quicker than drunk helped 31/38 trials. Men were 90% of helpers.

The helping behaviour was determined by the actual presence of the confederate and his state leading to his collapse showing the situational influence. The common methods of both field and observations were used for this study on the New York subway making it high in ecological validity and useful to be applied to similar real life situations

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Social Approach II

B) Asch, Using a lab and self-reports, effect of majority influence on peoples opinions, 123 students from 3 unis in USA, groups 7-9 confederates and 1 naive ps, asked ‘which line is the same length as the line on the first card?’ with the choice of 3 lines, announced answers one by one with ps sitting last/2nd to last, all answered correctly in the 1st selection then either all said incorrectly or 1/2 said correct answer. 37% of selections were made based on the majoritys judgement showing people are unwilling to go against the majority verdict due to lack of confidence or to fit in and avoid embarrassment.
The responses of the 37% of selections were influenced by the social situation and others actual responses to the questions. Although they used a lab it was to be applied to the field setting of the jury which would be unethical to perform. Only stated the situational influence as the cause of behaviour making it reductionist.


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Social Approach III

C) Strengths: High ecological validity due to the common use of field experiments  – Piliavin – Attempt to use real life situations to study behaviour makes results more valid

Useful as it studies real life behaviour – Milgram identifies situational factors that can lead to obedience – applications

WeaknessesReductionist as it assumes the situational context alone is what causes behaviour – Juby and Farrington if in disrupted family there will be higher delinquency rates in boys – other factors such as individual variables are not accounted for which could also be affecting the results, less valid

Lacks controlPilivan field experiment – makes the study less Valid

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Cognitive Approach I

A) Assumes behaviour can be explained in terms of how the mind operates/processes information. It takes a mechanistic view suggesting the mind works similarly to a computer by inputting, processing and responding to informationInternal processes such as memory, thinking and language influence behaviours. The cognitive approach looks at differences/defects in processing.
Associated methods: Case studies, Self-reports and labs
Common issues: Reliable, psychology as a science, useful, lack ecological validity and validity


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Cognitive Approach II

B) Loftus et al, effect of the presence of a weapon on witness recall, lab, self-reports, split 36 students split, watched slides of a queue at Taco Time Restaurant, controls saw person hand the cashier a check and her return change, experimental saw the same person pull a gun on the cashier and her hand him money, eye movement data recorded during showed more and longer eye fixations on the gun than the check, questionnaire results on 7 questions about the suspect and line-up of 12 photos for them to identify from was stronger in study 2 with experimental getting 56% correct compared to 67% and identifying 15% and controls 35%. Supports weapon focus. Although could be any unusual object.
The reliable self-report questionnaire and line-up test in a lab setting measured the internal processes of memory of the slides and showed that there was a difference in the thinking processing between the 2 conitions which is useful, Common issues are Low ecological validity as they study was based on the responses of observers of a simulated crime on slides so it lacks generalizability


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Cognitive Approach III

B) Loftus and Palmer, effects of language on memory, lab, self-reports, 45 students, watched 7 police safety films of car crashes, questionnaire and give an account, IV verb manipulated in the critical question ‘how fast were the cars going when they contacted/hit/bumped/ collided/smashed into each other?’ Smash elicited highest mean estimate 40.8mph, Contacted the lowest 31.8, the form of question (language) affected the witness’s answers.


C) Strengths: scientific + support that psychology is a science- Pickup and Frith the same 1st + 2nd order Theory of Mind tasks to judge the impairment in schizophrenic patients based on their symptoms on the day –reliable results

Useful provides a cause of behaviour from the minds of ps – Ford and Widiger explained one of the reasons for misdiagnosis of dysfunctional behaviour by clinicians is due to gender bias in some disorders with a stereotypical prevalence in either male/females–applications to improve the defects in internal processes

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Cognitive Approach IIII

C...) Weaknesses: Prown to biases as the ps thinking processes can cause problems in answering questions-Chamberlain and Zika asked about hassles of 4 groups of people, elderly respondents labelled crime as their top hassle however could be misinterpreted as being biggest fear/anxiety – less valid

Low ecological validity-Loftus + Palmer lab setting, watched simulated crime on slides (weapon focus)-less generalizable to real witness

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Developmental I

A) Looks at the changes individuals go through over time, usually focusing on infant development with the main interest in how we develop from ‘cradle to grave’. Assumes that the way we think and behave changes over our lifespan by developing steadily and in stages with the main interest in what brings about the changes.
Associated methods: Case studies, lab, self-report and observations
Common issues: Longitudinal-time consuming, ethics in studying children, useful and the nature-nurture debate

B) Chen and Howitt-Examine moral reasoning development in young offenders, 330 males, 12-18 yrs, in juvenile correctional institutions, Taiwan, Self-reports questionnaire on criminal history(violent theft drugs)114 non-offenders, Short Form of Social Reflection Measure; 5 moral values-Contract + truth, Affiliation, Life, Property + Law, Legal + Justice. Found a High age correlation with moral reasoning in controls (not offenders), all slowest in property + law & Legal + justice. Life distinguished most (least for controls highest for theft) Contract +truth & Affiliation most developed for all.Findings confirm prev, moral cognitive development stage less advanced for offenders=less mature moral develop is a risk factor.
The self-reports is used as an easier, snapshot method of studying the already developed differences in morals of offenders and non. Suggests less mature moral developme nt is what brought the changes to a crime related lifestyle.

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Developmental II

B) Samuel and Bryant, Test whether piagets methodology used in conservation experiments was the reason for children errors rather than a lack of understanding, lab, self-reports, 252 children from schools in and around Crediton UK, 5-8½ yrs split into 4 groups of 63 based on their age, subdivided into 3 groups of 21. Conditions standard (two questions pre and post transformation) used by piaget, one-judgement used by Rose and Blank (see transformation but only post question), Fixed array only shown materials at post-transformation stage (controls). Better able to conserve on one-judgement task, standard led to incorrect/a change in response suggesting piaget underestimated the cognitive abilities of younger children. Older=less errors, conservation of no. fewest errors.

The changes in children over time showed a better ability to conserve which supports the theory that we develop in stages (nature) with the way we ask questions (self-report) bringing about better changes in fewer errors in conservation tasks (nurture). Snapshot gathered data from a range of ages less time consuming allowing larger sample size but the study of children questions their ability to ethically consent to take part.

 

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Developmental III

C) Strengths: UsefulSamuel and Bryant Tested and proved piagets methodology in conservation tasks of asking 2 questions (standard condition) caused children to doubt themselves creating more errors than when asked one question (one-judgement condition) – applications contributes to debate to childrens cognitive development and helped to improve the educational system

Shows how nurture can affect the way we develop – Bandura proved children imitate aggressive acts they observe from models – useful for people to know and become better role models

Weaknesses: susceptible to ethical issues in the study of children in particularly consentFreud little Hans father –unethical BPS guidelines

Validity of measuring childrens  behaviour + thoughts as they may be qualitatively different to adults – Bandura aggression implied by acts may of just been playing to them – lower internal validity

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Physiological I

A) Assumes we are biological machines made up of chemicals and cells which control our thoughts, feelings and behaviour, suggesting all behaviour has a biological basis that can be explain through understanding biological and neurological processes such as genetics, brain damage or hormones etc. It also suggests that all that is psychological is first physiological. Therefore the approach would suggest behaviour is more due to nature than nurture, so differences in behaviours are innate and not learned.
Associated methods: labs, case studies, quasi
Common issues: Psych as science, reliable, low ecological validity

C)Wilson and Daly, examined gender + age patterns in violent crimes, analysed data from police records of homicides in Detroit in 1972 + found to be a very male affair 422, F-90; most social conflicts M-183 F-29; mainly retaliation + concerned with status competition  which is based on competition for a mate for successful reproductive system in males through fighting, display or competing for status/territory with other males. Supports evolutionary psych argues that similar pressures to those in the animal kingdom are exerted on men in human society.

Being male is the biological basis of being the main offenders suggesting they have evolved to have more of an innate violent behaviour than females taking the nature side. It is reliable info and high ecological validity as they are real crimes

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Physiological II

B)Maguire, lab, investigate differences in the brain between16 london taxi drivers, male, 32-62 yrs, and controls 50 non-taxi drivers, male, 32-62 previously scanned in the MRI database lab, correlation, Taxi-drivers scanned with structural MRI, analysed and compared with controls scans using voxel-based morphometry to measure grey matter volume and general differences and pixel counting scan separated into 24 slices focused on hippocampi. VBM taxis had increase in grey matter in left and right hippocampi and increase bilaterally in the posterior but decrease in anterior proving a structural difference in hippocampi to controls, Pixel counting regionally specific differences (non-higher volume in right anterior and right side)

The lab correlation confirmed regionally specific structure differences of the brain through the reliable, scientific equipment of MRI scans is related to environmental stimulation therefore giving taxi-driving a biological basis being in the hippocampi explained here through neurological analysis supporting psychology as a science

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Physiological III

C) Strengths: Sophisticated Scientific equipmentJohansson and Aronnson blood pressure, urine samples adrenaline, heart rate- objective precise measure features of stress

Is the ethics of the research as they commonly use quasi expr- Raine identify areas of brain dysfunction in murderers found not guilty by reason of insanity compared to controls PETscan with MANOVA;murder less activity in pre-frontal cortex (controlling behaviour, personality etc)- means murderers would not have to be created for the purpose of the study which would be unethical

Weaknesses: Low ecological validityDement and Kleitman ps slept in lab with electrodes not normal– not generalizable

Reductionist Wilson and Daly gender all males – less valid, doesn’t account for other variables such as situational

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Individual Differences I

A)To understand complexity of human behaviour its necess ary to study differences between people rather than the common. Focuses on the unique characteristics as causes of behaviour rather than environmental/social causes + aims to make generalisations about differences between people. normal+abnormal behaviuours and use psychological tests to measure+compare individuals characteristics.
Associated methods: Case studies, self-reports + observa
Common issues: Individual debate, longitudinal, useful

B) Gudjonsson et al, acertain a national base rate of custodial interrogation, confessesion, false confession and denial, to investigate psychological and criminological factors associated with false confessors. Self-report, 10472 students, Iceland, asked 4? On 5. 1-never, 2-once, 3-twice, 4-3-5, 4-6+: how often A-been interrogated B-confessed, C-false confessed, D-denied and psych measures: depression and anxiety scale, anger self esteem scale, measure parental support, school attitude and self and friend delinquency involvement. 18.6% been interrogated, 7% false confessed more common in those intero freq(12% 2+ 3% once) Qual- Personality,individual dif,lifestyle(friend+self dr) important in discriminating between false confessors and non.
Psych tests compare differences between people who false confess and don’t to focus on unique characteristics that cause the difference in behaviour. Self-reports, scientific

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Individual Differences II

B) Thigpen And Cleckley, quasi, document MPD behaviour and mannerisms and the psychotherapeutic treatment in Eve White, 25 woman, case study over 100 hours of therapy over 14 months  by self-reports interviews with her family to discover more about her past, multiple quan + qual self-report psych tests for each of the 3 personalities discovered (Eve White, Eve Black and Jane) inc IQ –EW 110 + superior memory, EB 104 +inferior memory +scientific measure of brain activity EEG jane +EW 11normal EB 12.5 associated with psychopathic personality. Rorshack ink test shows EW is repressive and EB regressive as well as observations showing EW as a more demure,sad, sensibly dressed + serious, EB childishly vain, egocentric, dressed provocatively +witty.
Studied the difference in Eve White due to her ‘abnormal’ disorder of mpd and theunique characteristics compared between personalities over the longitudinal case study which gained indepth info – useful, but higher likelihood of validity being affect by researcher bias

C) Strengths: Usefulrosenhan found type 2 error for every admission at 12 hospitals in USA – applications to improve and revise diagnostic system manuals and treatments

Takes the individual debate understand differences-Griffiths different heuristics in gamblers – useful to know the focus for apps

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Individual Differences II

B) Thigpen And Cleckley, quasi, document MPD behaviour and mannerisms and the psychotherapeutic treatment in Eve White, 25 woman, case study over 100 hours of therapy over 14 months  by self-reports interviews with her family to discover more about her past, multiple quan + qual self-report psych tests for each of the 3 personalities discovered (Eve White, Eve Black and Jane) inc IQ –EW 110 + superior memory, EB 104 +inferior memory +scientific measure of brain activity EEG jane +EW 11normal EB 12.5 associated with psychopathic personality. Rorshack ink test shows EW is repressive and EB regressive as well as observations showing EW as a more demure,sad, sensibly dressed + serious, EB childishly vain, egocentric, dressed provocatively +witty.
Studied the difference in Eve White due to her ‘abnormal’ disorder of mpd and theunique characteristics compared between personalities over the longitudinal case study which gained indepth info – useful, but higher likelihood of validity being affect by researcher bias

C) Strengths: Usefulrosenhan found type 2 error for every admission at 12 hospitals in USA – applications to improve and revise diagnostic system manuals and treatments

Takes the individual debate understand differences-Griffiths different heuristics in gamblers – useful to know the focus for apps

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Individual Differences III

Weaknesses:

Hard to generalise findings because each individual has unique characteristics-thigpen + cleckley eve white 1 case study-less useful

Reductionist – Rosenhan found that the diagnosis of schizophrenia in sane pseudopatients had all ‘normal’ behaviours associated to the individual difference rather than the situation they were in (pacing out of boredom) – less valid not all into account

 

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Psychodynamic I

A) We all have an unconscious and conscious mind. The unconscious is where we repress our past experiences (particularly from childhood) which influences and determines our behaviour causing problems such as phobias, desires or conflicts. Assumes we are driven by sex and aggression and all human behaviour can be explained in terms of these inner conflicts of the mind.Associated methods: Case studies-subjective, selfr +observati. Common issue; low reliability, validity, unpsych science, but holistic

B) Thigpen And Cleckley, quasi, document MPD behaviour and mannerisms and the psychotherapeutic treatment in Eve White, 25 woman, case study over 100 hours of therapy over 14 mnths  by self-reports interviews with her family to discover more of her past, multiple,quan+qual self-report psych tests for each of 3 personalities discovered (Eve White, Eve Black and Jane) inc IQ –EW 110+superior memory, EB 104+inferior memory +scientific measure of brain activity EEG jane +EW 11normal EB 12.5 associ with psychopathic persnality. Rorshack ink test EW repressive + EB regressive+observations EW as demure,sad, sensibly dressed + serious, EB childishly vain, egocentric, dressed provocatively + witty. Studied the Eve Whites MPD which developed from her unconscious as it has been said she repressed the experience of kissing a dead relative at a funeral as a child causing the different behaviours. Used as outlets of her unconscious desires. Eve Black sex driven. Aimed to find treatment for her as a whole for a better life not just the problem. longitudinal case study gained indepth info–useful, but likelihood validity was affect by researcher bias

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Psychodynamic II

B) Freud, case study Little Hans 3-5yrs, Austria father sent observations and conversation (self-report) data to Freud and he’d respond with how to deal with by letter, document the development of phobias and psychosexual stages, fear of horses came from hearing a father say to their child it will bite your finger, see one fall over with carriage, stayed indoors, looked like father (moustache, brown mouth and blinkers, glasses) associated with castration fear from mother telling him not to touch his ‘widdler’ and father telling him his mother didn’t have one disproving his belief. Disappointment in her not touching it when he came out of the bath showed sexual desire for mother which caused jealousy of the father relationship with her, giraffe dream sat on crumpled one after taking it away from the big one calling out, dream of plumber removing his little behind and widdler with big ones show +marriage to mum with father as gdad-identification to father + solved issues once brought to conscious in meetin
His unconscious desire for mum shows his sex driven and aggression and jealousy of father causing phobia of horse caused by inner conflicts. 3 yrs longitudinal low science,low validity biases of interpretation self-reports case study observation

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Psychodynamic III

C) Strengths: Holistic-Thigpen and Cleckley -unconscious desires based on situational factors of family and past experience aimed to find a treatment decided on trying to make jane a more prominent personality for the sake of the problem (more sensible and balanced) + her family -Useful Treat person as a whole + the issue

Useful-Freud, bring unconscious conflicts to the conscious to discuss +resolve-Apps therapy

Weaknesses: Likely to be influenced by biases to measure the inner unconscious-Freud already believed Hans was in the phallic stage(3-5) where his sexual identification was established. During experience the Oedipus complex providing highly disturbing conflicts to be resolved by them identifying with the same-sexed parent so his interpretations were bias+could’ve been interpreted differently such as common interest in the human body + confusion – lower internal validity

Lacks psych as science-Bandura observation no physiological measure of anger-less reliable

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Behaviourist I

A) Assumes all behaviour is learnt from the environment which is central to shaping behaviour. We learn behaviour Classical conditioning (Pavlov-association-Dog sees food, salivates, hear bell with food creates association=the bell alone = salivates), Operant conditioning (Skinner-Reinforce ment) or Social Learning Theory (Bandura -imitation). Suggests born with a tabula rasa (blank slate) to fill with behaviour learnt after birth. Associated methods: lab, case study, observa. Common issues: nurture, reductionist ignores bio, scientific control, useful

B)Akers et al, Test the social learning theory of deviant behaviour of drug and alcohol use in adolescents, self-report, 2500, 13-18, 3 usa states, questionnaire about abstinence/use of alcohol and marijuana, 1 never-6nearly everyday point freq scale, abuse measured by experiences of any problems, subsample followup interview check reliability, influenced by SLT and sutherlands D.A. 5 predictor variables: imitation, definitions, differential association, differential reinforcement social and non-social. Supports SLT, model:55% variance in drink, 68% in drug, least predictive variable imitation, most DA (peer)-Support DA-friends we observe + imitate + they provide social reinforcement + norms. Learnt from environment models, particularly differential peer association supporting Operant conditioning (peer reinforcement), Classical (associate with friends) + SLT(imitate). Self-report, Nurture, Useful, Reliable, 

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Behaviourist II

B) Watson and Rayner, Asses whether a phobia could be emotionally conditioned, case study + observations, 1 baby boy, Little Albert, 8months-1yr21days (5month study)In a small well lit dark room Fear reactions were tested first showing no fear responses, induced fear by hitting a steel bar behind him and he cried on the 3rd hit. A white rat no fear, went to touch it + bar was struck causing him to fall over, 1week later (conditioning) rat alone he eventually reached out+steel bar=fall, happened several times + became more fearful until cried. He was reconditio ned as the time between sessions he seemed to lose his fear ,Until rat alone made him cry and crawl away. Moved into a large well-lit lecture room with an audience of 4 people, showed no fear of the rabbit/rat/dog until rat was closer he whimpered and tried to move+ rabbit violent fear

behaviour of a phobia (fear) was learnt through classical conditioning through association of the scary bang by the experimenters(nurture) of the rod and the animals (rat rabbit and dog). Case study, + observation, useful to know how we learn 

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Behaviourist III

C) Strengths: Usefulakers understand why children use drugs and alcohol (66%variance in alcohol) – applications remove the factors influencing them

Emphasis on objective, scientific + controlled methods of studying behaviour- Bandura carried out highly controlled experiments whereby the only variable that differed was the variable manipulated by the experimenters such as the behaviour or sex of the role models- reliable

Weaknesses: Low ecological validitybandura lab – less applicable to real life situations due to the high control over the environment which wouldn’t be the case in real life (EVS)

Reductionist, ignores biological factors focus on environmental - Watson and Rayner suggested that Little Alberts fear of the rat was purely due to associating the rat with a loud banging noise, and not any biological abnormalities in Albert)-Less valid

 

 

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