KEY FACTORS: Role of key individuals, Development of Science and Technology, Impact of Chance, Fast medical change that has been encouraged by War
- KEY INDIVIDUALS -Discovery of the Germ Theory (Louis Pasteur) - following work from the french brewing industry.
- Understanding of microbes - Cause of disease instead of SUPERNATURAL.
- Led to development in vaccinations against rabies and developments in the fight against cholera.
- Pasteur findings ENHANCED by Robert Koch.
- Robert Koch: connection between germs and decay, linking specific germs to a particular disease
- Discovered the germ that caused septicemia
- Worked hard to develop vaccine for TB
- PAUL EHRLICH - studied how the human body produced antibodies.
- Able to identify the syphillis microbe
- Developed the 'Magic Bullet' - one of the very first man made antibodies.
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- CHANCE- Edward Jenner - cow pox could be used to create a vaccination against smallpox.
- Country doctor, saw milkmaids who suffered from cowpox did not develop smallpox.
- Vaccine=safer than innoculation
- Couldn't explain why vaccine worked but was still backed by the government.
- Alexander Fleming- went to clean dirty culture dishes, noticed a penicillin mould spore.
- The germ he was testing had stopped growing as a result.
- Did not act immediately.
- Wrote an article that later inspired Florey and Chain.
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- Florey and Chain- Recieved funding from USA government to develop a way of mass producing penicillin, so it could be used to treat wounded soldiers during WW2
- Without funding= no mass production of this powerful anitbiotic.
- Pasteur+Koch - affected in negative way.
- Consequence of Franco Prussian war, became national rivals- made discoveries as fast as they could to increase national pride.
- Koch- rushed development of TB vaccine lead to errors.
- Stopped them from collaborating.
- They would have made faster progress if they had worked together
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- SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
- Discovery of microbes was made possible by increasing the power of the microscope in 19th century.
- Enhanced by Koch when he connected a lens camera to his microscope- could capture images of different germs.
- Koch used newly developed chemical dyes.
- Helped him identify different microbes more easily- helped him to prove he had isolated the right germs for the right disease.
- Pasteur- dveloped swan neck flask to help trap organisms in search for microbes.
- Important in helping him to show thorough public experiments, that microbes did not spontaneously generate.
- Most recently: Understanding of human stem cells allowed sceintists to harvest cells and use them to treat patients with life-threatening diseases or paralysis.
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