Section A Paper 3 Sociology



  • Positive view – world shrinking
  • Negative view – lead to bullying fraud etc
  • Developments in communication and transportation
  • Wider global society
  • National boundaries less significant.
  • Not even process
  • Happens different rate not in the same way.
  • Assumed it is positive process
  • Cochrane & Pain - global economic and cultural system, single global society
  • Giddens - intensification of worldwide social relation
  • Cohen & Kennedy - changes in concept of time and space
  • Impact - identity, social inequality & social movements.
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Age and DC - Patterns


  • More adults in UK, especially older adults, are going online using a range of devices
  • 83% of afults now go online, nearly all 16-24 yo's and 25-34's are now on line
  • There is 9% increase of over 65's going online from 2012
  • Number of adults using tablets to go online almost doubled from 16% in 2012 to 30% in 2013.
  • Use of tablets for age 65-74 yo's trebbled from 5% to 17%
  • 6 in 10 UK adults use smartphone
  • Those ages 45-54 now twice as likely to use internet to play games
  • 66% of adults say they have a current social media profile.
  • Berry - 79% of household below avg pension age have access compared to 37% above who dont. = digital divide due to lack of skill/knowledge
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Age and DC - Impact and Criticism


  • YOUNG - Positive- valuable skills, important connections, engage in political and social issues, support groups and networks, access ideas and info immediatly.
  • YOUNG - Negative - exploitation, sexual abuse, greater pressure to conform to societies expectations, unhappy cant reach goals, cyber bullying, discrimination, exposure to adult content
  • Palmer - toxic parenting, good parenting is replaced by tech to occupy children


  • Increases digital divide
  • Keep in contact with family - other side of world etc
  • Older generation useage increasing
  • Boyle - each generation has greater reliance of digital communication
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Social Class and DC - Patterns


  • Less money = higher rate of non participation
  • Low class linked to lower internet use (81% of lower class are users compared to 94% of middle class)
  • Low class focus technology use on entertainment not knowledge/info (79% owned games consoles compared to 64% of higher classes)
  • Mertens and D'Haenens - social class is most powerful variable in digital inequality
  • Guardian 2005 - 88% middle class and 61% working class have access to internet at home
  • Marxism - Cornford and Robins -  spreads ruling class  ideology, false class consciousness to prevent revoly and keep masses happy.
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Social Class and DC - Impact and Criticism


  • Digital divide
  • Digital underclass
  • More affluent can increase social capital through online networks
  • Considerable cost linked with DC and maintenance of it
  • Digital divide - increasing social inequality in society
  • Ruling class own media outlet - fox news right wing bias, claim they are fair but tell us their views


  • Digital revolution
  • DC allows people to challenge ruling class - protest and challenging inequality.
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Gender and DC - Patterns


  • Younger women much more likely to use DC to maintain relationships. 42% younger woemn compared to 34% 18-34
  • Younger users - mostly men- use social media for other reasons that maintaining relationships (usually entertainment) 28%
  • Young women spend 16% of tyime online finding info
  • Women have avg of 394 facebook posts and 69% of facebook gamers are female
  • In every month in 2014 40m more women visited twitter than men .
  • Li and Kirkup - british and chinese students - males in both countries more likely than women to use email and chatrooms.
  • Men played more video games, more likely to boast about computer skills and more likely to express view that using computers was male activity
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Gender and DC - Impact and Criticisms


  • Women represent under 1/5 of IT managers, 21% of computer analysts and 14% of software porfessionals - Cooper 2013.
  • Linkedin more male users than female
  • Women increasingly objectified regarded as objects
  • Women exploited online
  • Women who might have been 'muted' have a voice through DC and can contact others all over the world
  • Cyborgs and other identity created transcend gender
  • Women utilise DC to mobilise support for activities which challenge patriarchal practices and ideology. 
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Global Village and Global Culture

Global Village

  • increasing volume of communication not involve face to face contact
  • idea of time and distance shrink - smaller world
  • increases abulity to create and maintiain social relationships
  • people can search for specific online communities and interact with others who share similar interests and concerns.
  • relationship which people have online may be as significant as offline ones
  • social capital - meet business partners, save time and money
  • advertisers can use social media to expand business
  • virtual communities - cyber city carter and second life boelstroff

Global Culture

  • transmission of ideas, meanings, and valuesaround the world in such a way as to extend and intensify socialrelations. This process is marked by the common consumption of cultures that have been diffused by the internet, pop culture, media, and international travel

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Theory and DC


  • provides a new way to exploit women and children
  • patriarchal ideology prepetuated through imagery and representation
  • roberts et al - younger women use dc to maintain soc relationships, women excluded from history of dc, cyborgs and other identity created to transcend gender,
  • nakaurma pervious muted groups have voice through dc and can connect with others accross world
  • haraway - what it is to be woman politicides and socially constructed - technology offer women new identity


  • globalisation results in spread of western capitalist ideas
  • new forms of communication reflect ideas if media owners - rupert merdoch fox news - political bias, claim they are fair but show their views right wing republican/conservative
  • new forms of communication encourage poassive acceptance  of capitalism
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Theory and DC


  • vertical concerntration - attemt to control every aspect of film
  • horozontal concerntation - buy competitors in same market
  • big data help companies profit


  • Linked to globalisation
  • represents way in which people create own identity
  • positive and negative effects on social relationship
  • collins - understand chains of interation must be inderstood. look closely at identity shown through sociual media using microsociologist approach it may be possible to understand world around you
  • hart - rewrite autobiography daily
  • case- hard to remove mistakes online. online and offline identity may cause issues. conflict and tension.
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Women and DC

  • laura bates everyday sexism
  • nakumura - ethnic minority / muted groups experience a voice
  • 42% use dc to maintain relationships
  • haraway -women put aside by men
  • globalisation expolites women - physical and sexual abuse, commodification of women (being sold and bought) ability to share eroticising of mens violence towards women
  • sexualised violent imagery less serious as it is prevelant
  • ikamara larasi campaign to address racist and sexist stereotypes in music video students began to ban blurred lines on uk campuses in response to sexist lyrics
  • jinan younis co founded feminist society at school - online abuse from boy in peer group wrote article and went viral and is encouraging deminist society in schools worldwide
  • women mobilise support for activties which challenge patriarchal practices
  • linked in used by mainly men
  • cooper - women 1/5 it managers, 21% computer analysts14% software professionals
  • women not protected online - male dominated government
  • national boundries less significant illegal movement of people become easier to coordinate
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