- Created by: RV1BD6
- Created on: 12-06-18 15:37
Physical Properties of metals and non-metal
~ Lustrous ~ High Tensile Strenght ~Good electrical conductivity
~Hard ~High melting and boiling point
~High Density ~Good conductor of heat
~Dull ~Poor or no thermal conductivity
~Low Density ~Poor or non conductor of electricity
~Low or no tensile strength of gas ~Low melting and boiling point
Chemical properties of acid
Most metals react with oxygen to make metal oxides.
Iron + Oxygen goes to form Iron oxide
Sodium + Oxygen goes to dorm Sodium oxide
Metals form a basic oxide and turn universal indicator blue.
Non-metals form an acidic oxide and turn universal indicator red.
Metals react with acids to make salt. E.g Zinc and sulphuric acid makes Zinc Sulphate
Hydrochloric acid produces chloride salts.
Sulphuric acid produces sulphate salts.
Nitric acid produces nitrate salts.
Phosphoric acid produces phoshate salts.
Hydrochloric acid + copper goes to form Copper chloride + hydrogen
Nitric acid + Magnesium goes to form Magnesium nitrate + Hydrogen
These are also known as Alkail metals.
~Stored under oil - because they are very reactive.The oil prevents them from reacting with oxygen (in the air) and water.
~The order of reactivity increases as you go down the group. Potassium is more reactive than Lithium.
~Alkali metals have low density compared to other metals.When thay are placed in water they will float.
~As you go down the group, the melting point and boiling points become lower.
~All group one have 1 electron in their outer energy level, therefore they will have similar chemical properties.
More Group 1
Reaction with Water
When Lithium, Sodium and Potassium react with water,they float to metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas is produced.
X + Water goes to form X hydroxide + Hydrogen
Sodium + Water goes to form Sodium hydroxide + Hydrogen
Reaction with Oxygen
When Lithium,Sodium and Potassium react with oxygen- a metal oxide is produced
Potassium + Water goes to form Potassium oxide
Reaction with Chlorine
When Li, Na and K react with chlorine - a metal chloride is produced.
Lithium + Chlorine goes to form Lithium chloride
Why is Potassium more reative than Lithium?
All the elements aim to become stable (full outer energy level). In order for group 1 to become stable , they lose one electron.
Lithium's outer electron is closer to the nucleus than sodium's which in turn is closer than potassium.
Because Lithium's outer electron (negative) is closer to the nucleus (postive), the attration is very strong and it harder to lose it's outer electron.
However, potassium's electron is futher away from the nucleus it is shielded by more energy levels.Therefore the attration is much less so it's much easier fot poatssium to lose it's outer electron.
Group 7-The halogen
Halogens exist as pairs of atoms - F2, Cl2 ,Br2
All group 7 have 7 electrons in their outer shell, therefore they will have similar chemical properties.
They will gain 1 electrons to become stable. In doing so, they form a negative ion.
As you go down the group- thier reactivity decreases. Fluorine is the most reactive.
As you down the group- the Relative Molecular Mass, atomic radius, melting and boiling point increase.
Fluorine and chloride are gases, bromine is a liquid and iodine is a soild
Why does reactivity decrease as we go down group 7?
The atoms get larger going down the group.
The attration force between the positive nucleus and the outer energy level containing negative electrons
When halogens are bubbled through a halide solution, if the halogen is more reactive than the halogen in solution - a displacement reaction will take place.
The more reactive halogen displaces out the least reactive halogen in compound.
Threrefore Flourine will react with/displace all the halogens below.
Bromine + Lithium chloride goes to form Bromine + Lithium chloride
Br2 + LiCl goes to form Br2 + LiCl
Chloine + Sodium iodide goes to form Sodium chloride + Iodine
Fluorine + Lithium chloride goes to form Lithium fluoride + Lithium
Iodine + Potassium iodide goes to form Potassium iodide + Iodine
Noble / Inert gases
He - 2 Ne - 2,8 Ar - 2,8,8
They have full outer energy levels, they are stable therefore are very unreactive.
They do not want to lose or gain electrons, so they do no form any ions.
As you go down the group the boiling point increases.
They are found between group 2 and 3.
They show similar properties of metals:
See notes - Properties of metals
~High density (density decrease across the row)
~Sonorous (ringing sound when hit)
~Malleable (Hammered into shapes)
~Ductile(can be drawn into wire)
Transitions metals and their compounds are often used as catalysts (speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being used in the reaction itself).
Uses of transition metals
Iron is used in the Haber process (making ammonia).
Nickel is used to make margarine and coins.
Copper is used to make water pipes.
They have variable ions. E.g Fe 2+ and Fe 3+
When transition metals are in compound ,they are coloured.
Copper compounds are blue.
Iron(II) componds are pale green
Iron(III) compounds are orange/brown
Nickel compound are green