Second Half

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  • Created on: 12-06-18 15:37

Physical Properties of metals and non-metal


~ Lustrous         ~ High Tensile Strenght     ~Good electrical conductivity

~Hard       ~High melting and boiling point

~High Density  ~Good conductor of heat


~Dull     ~Poor or no thermal conductivity

~Low Density   ~Poor or non conductor of electricity

~Low or no tensile strength of gas      ~Low melting and boiling point

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Chemical properties of acid

Most metals react with oxygen to make metal oxides.


Iron + Oxygen goes to form Iron oxide

Sodium + Oxygen goes to dorm Sodium oxide

Metals form a basic oxide and turn universal indicator blue.

Non-metals form an acidic oxide and turn universal indicator red.

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Metals react with acids to make salt. E.g Zinc and sulphuric acid makes Zinc Sulphate

Hydrochloric acid produces chloride salts.

Sulphuric acid produces sulphate salts.

Nitric acid produces nitrate salts.

Phosphoric acid produces phoshate salts.


Hydrochloric acid + copper goes to form Copper chloride + hydrogen

Nitric acid + Magnesium goes to form Magnesium nitrate + Hydrogen

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Group 1

These are also known as Alkail metals.

~Stored under oil - because they are very reactive.The oil prevents them from reacting with oxygen (in the air) and water.

~The order of reactivity increases as you go down the group. Potassium is more reactive than Lithium.

~Alkali metals have low density compared to other metals.When thay are placed in water they will float.

~As you go down the group, the melting point and boiling points become lower.

~All group one have 1 electron in their outer energy level, therefore they will have similar chemical properties.

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More Group 1

Reaction with Water

When Lithium, Sodium and Potassium react with water,they float to metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas is produced.

X + Water goes to form X hydroxide + Hydrogen

Sodium + Water goes to form Sodium hydroxide + Hydrogen

Reaction with Oxygen

When Lithium,Sodium and Potassium react with oxygen- a metal oxide is produced

Potassium + Water goes to form Potassium oxide

Reaction with Chlorine

When Li, Na and K react with chlorine - a metal chloride is produced.

Lithium + Chlorine goes to form Lithium chloride

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Why is Potassium more reative than Lithium?

All the elements aim to become stable (full outer energy level). In order for group 1 to become stable , they lose one electron.

Lithium's outer electron is closer to the nucleus than sodium's which in turn is closer than potassium.

Because Lithium's outer electron (negative) is closer to the nucleus (postive), the attration is very strong and it harder to lose it's outer electron.

However, potassium's electron is futher away from the nucleus it is shielded by more energy levels.Therefore the attration is much less so it's much easier fot poatssium to lose it's outer electron.

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Group 7-The halogen

Halogens exist as pairs of atoms - F2, Cl2 ,Br2

All group 7 have 7 electrons in their outer shell, therefore they will have similar chemical properties.

They will gain 1 electrons to become stable. In doing so, they form a negative ion.

As you go down the group- thier reactivity decreases. Fluorine is the most reactive.

As you down the group- the Relative Molecular Mass, atomic radius, melting and boiling point increase.

Fluorine and chloride are gases, bromine is a liquid and iodine is a soild

Why does reactivity decrease as we go down group 7?

The atoms get larger going down the group.

The attration force between the positive nucleus and the outer energy level containing negative electrons

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Displacement Reactions

When halogens are bubbled through a halide solution, if the halogen is more reactive than the halogen in solution - a displacement reaction will take place.

The more reactive halogen displaces out the least reactive halogen in compound.

Threrefore Flourine will react with/displace all the halogens below.


Bromine + Lithium chloride goes to form Bromine + Lithium chloride

Br2 + LiCl  goes to form    Br2 + LiCl

Chloine + Sodium iodide goes to form Sodium chloride + Iodine

Fluorine + Lithium chloride goes to form Lithium fluoride + Lithium

Iodine + Potassium iodide goes to form Potassium iodide + Iodine

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Noble / Inert gases

He - 2       Ne - 2,8     Ar - 2,8,8

They have full outer energy levels, they are stable therefore are very unreactive.

They do not want to lose or gain electrons, so they do no form any ions.

As you go down the group the boiling point increases.

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Transition Metals

They are found between group 2 and 3.

They show similar properties of metals:

See notes - Properties of metals

~High density (density decrease across the row)

~Sonorous (ringing sound when hit)

~Malleable (Hammered into shapes)

~Ductile(can be drawn into wire)

Transitions metals and their compounds are often used as catalysts (speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being used in the reaction itself).

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Uses of transition metals

Iron is used in the Haber process (making ammonia).

Nickel is used to make margarine and coins.

Copper is used to make water pipes.

They have variable ions. E.g Fe 2+ and Fe 3+

When transition metals are in compound ,they are coloured.

Copper compounds are blue.

Iron(II) componds are pale green

Iron(III) compounds are orange/brown

Nickel compound are green

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