- Proposed a set of clear norms for sceintific practice, legitimatized in terms of institutional values:
- Disinterestedness - acting to benefit a common scientific enterprise rather than for personal gain - should disengage their interests.
- Organised Scepticism
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Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996)
- a physicist with interests in history of science.
- Spoke about Paradigms:
- Pre-science---- normal science--- crisis----revolution---( New) normal science---- crisis:
- Pre-science: characterised by disagreement, debate over fundemntals.
- Normal science: govened by single paradigm.
- Crisis: anomalies become serious.
- Revolution: New paradigm appears, different questions are relevant, solves the anomilies
- (New) Normal science: happens when majority of scientists have switched paradigm, new problems to solve, new methods, new anomolies...
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David Bloor's 4 tenets of the 'Strong Programme' i
- (sociology of scientific knowledge)
- A true sociology of science would be:
- Symmetrical: All belifes are on a par with one another with respect to the causes of thie credibility.
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Criticism of SKK
- revolves around social constructivism:
- categories used are human imposing rather than in nature (nominalism)
- construction of realtiy
- construction of scientifict things
- construction of theories
- construction of nature
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Harry Collins - case study
- his work build on strong performance, focusing on the principle of impartiality and symmetry although largely from methodological reasons.
- interested in the scientific work of Webber on the detection of gravity waves (Big bang)
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