• Proposed a set of clear norms for sceintific practice, legitimatized in terms of institutional values: 
  • Commuism 
  • Universalism
  • Disinterestedness - acting to benefit a common scientific enterprise rather than for personal gain - should disengage their interests.
  • Organised Scepticism 
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Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996)

  • a physicist with interests in history of science. 
  • Spoke about Paradigms:
  • Pre-science---- normal science--- crisis----revolution---( New) normal science---- crisis:
  • Pre-science: characterised by disagreement, debate over fundemntals. 
  • Normal science: govened by single paradigm. 
  • Crisis: anomalies become serious. 
  • Revolution: New paradigm appears, different questions are relevant, solves the anomilies
  • (New) Normal science: happens when majority of scientists have switched paradigm, new problems to solve, new methods, new anomolies... 
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David Bloor's 4 tenets of the 'Strong Programme' i

  • (sociology of scientific knowledge) 
  • A true sociology of science would be:
  • Casual:- 
  • Impartial: 
  • Symmetrical: All belifes are on a par with one another with respect to the causes of thie credibility. 
  • Reflexive:
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Criticism of SKK

  • revolves around social constructivism:
  • categories used are human imposing rather than in nature (nominalism)
  • construction of realtiy
  • construction of scientifict things
  • construction of theories
  • construction of nature
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Harry Collins - case study

  • his work build on strong performance, focusing on the principle of impartiality and symmetry although largely from methodological reasons. 
  • interested in the scientific work of Webber on the detection of gravity waves (Big bang) 
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