- Cover 5% of human body
- Hands and Feet
- Ridges run in parallel lines forming patterns
- Create friction and aid grip
- Heighten sense of touch
- Aid sweating
- Formed in early foetal life.
- Constant through life.
- One of last recognisable features to go after death.
Three Main Patterns:
Contain deltas and cores
Also known as characteristics or 'Galton's Details':
- Ridge Endings
- Independent Ridges
- Alphonse Bertillon - Body Measurements
- William Herschel - India (Payroll)
- Sir Edward Henry - Classification of Fingerprints
Dec 1902 - London
Harry Jackson thumbprint found at scene of billiard ball theft.
Jackson pleaded not guilty but found guilty.
History (First use in a Murder)
1905 - Stratton Brothers accused of murdering Mr & Mrs Farrow in London
One of brothers fingerprint found on cashbox at scene of murder
Both Stratton brothers found guilty and hanged
Reasons to take prints
•To prove identity •To determine (and prove) previous convictions •To compare with scene finger marks •For elimination purposes
Prints at Scenes
Visible prints = PATENT
Invisible prints = LATENT
Surfaces and Treatments
Smooth, non-porous - POWDERS
Porous - CHEMICALS
Plastics - SUPERGLUE
Roles of Fingerprint Bureau
- Receive Tenprint sets from custody suites.
- Receive marks from scenes.
- Compare tenrpint sets with tenprint file sets.
- Compare crime scene marks with tenprint sets.
- Manual & computerise systems.
- Attend courts and give evidence.
Fingerprint Systems Used
IDENT1 - automated fingerprint system. Holds national collection.
LIVESCAN - electronic capture of tenprints in custody. Ensures quality and confirms ID there and then.