Science of Fingerprints (Forensics)

Science of Fingerprints (Forensics)

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  • Created by: Nelly
  • Created on: 02-01-12 22:54

Friction Ridges

  • Cover 5% of human body
  • Hands and Feet
  • Ridges run in parallel lines forming patterns
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Friction Ridges

  • Create friction and aid grip
  • Heighten sense of touch
  • Aid sweating
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Friction Ridges

  • Formed in early foetal life.
  • Constant through life.
  • One of last recognisable features to go after death.
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Ridge Patterns

Three Main Patterns:

  • Loops
  • Whorls
  • Arches

Contain deltas and cores

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Minutae

Also known as characteristics or 'Galton's Details':

  • Ridge Endings
  • Bifurcations
  • Lakes
  • Independent Ridges
  • Spurs
  • Crossovers
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History

  • Alphonse Bertillon - Body Measurements
  • William Herschel - India (Payroll)
  • Sir Edward Henry - Classification of Fingerprints
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History (England)

Dec 1902 - London

Harry Jackson thumbprint found at scene of billiard ball theft.

Jackson pleaded not guilty but found guilty.

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History (First use in a Murder)

1905 - Stratton Brothers accused of murdering Mr & Mrs Farrow in London

One of brothers fingerprint found on cashbox at scene of murder

Both Stratton brothers found guilty and hanged

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Reasons to take prints

To prove identity To determine (and prove) previous convictions To compare with scene finger marks For elimination purposes

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Prints at Scenes

Visible prints = PATENT

Invisible prints = LATENT

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Surfaces and Treatments

Smooth, non-porous - POWDERS

Porous - CHEMICALS

Plastics - SUPERGLUE

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Roles of Fingerprint Bureau

  • Receive Tenprint sets from custody suites.
  • Receive marks from scenes.
  • Compare tenrpint sets with tenprint file sets.
  • Compare crime scene marks with tenprint sets.
  • Manual & computerise systems.
  • Attend courts and give evidence.
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Fingerprint Systems Used

IDENT1 - automated fingerprint system.  Holds national collection.

LIVESCAN - electronic capture of tenprints in custody.  Ensures quality and confirms ID there and then.

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