Atoms and Elements
The Nucleus is in the middle of the atom, it contains protons and neutrons.
Protons are positively charged. Neutrons have no charge (they're neutral). So the nucleus has a positive charge overall because of the protons.
The Electrons move around the nucleus. They are negatively charged.
The number of protons equals number of electrons.
Atoms have no charge overall. They are neutral. The charge on the electrons is the same size as the charge on thd protons - but opposite. This means that the number of protons always equals the number of electrons in an atom. If some electrons are added or removed, the atom becomes charged and then is an ion.
Elements consist of one type of atom only.
Atoms have different numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons. It's the number of protons in the nucleus that decided what type of an atom it is. E.g An atom with one proton in its nucleus is hydrogen and an atom with two protons is helium. If a substance only contains one type of atom, it's called an element.
Rules of Electron shells:
1) Electrons always occupy shells
2) The lowest energy levels are always filled first - these are the ones closest to the nucleus.
3) Only a certain number of electrons are allowed in each shell:
1st shell: 2 2nd shell: 8 3rd shell: 8
4) Atoms are much happier when they have full electron shells - like the noble gases in Group 0.
5) In most atoms the outer shell is not full and this makes the atom want to react to fill it.
Atoms join together to make compounds.
When different elements react, atoms form chemical bonds with other atoms to form compounds. It's usually difficult to separate the two original elements out again.
Making bonds invloves atoms giving away, taking or sharing electrons. Only the electrons are involved - it's nothing to do with the nuclei of the atoms at all.
A compound which is formed from a metal and a non metal consists of ions. The metal atoms lose electrons to form positive ions and the non metals gain electrons to form negative ions. The opposite charges (positive and negative) of the ions mean that they're strongly attracted to each other. This is called IONIC BONDING
Another compound formed form non metals consists of molecules. Each atom shares an electron with another atom - this is called a COVALENT BOND. Each atom has to make enough covalent bonds to fill up its outer shell.