name 3 devices used to collect small animals
2. Pitfall traps
name 3 devices used to collect small animals
2. Pitfall trap
Describe what techniques you would use to estimate
you would record the no. of organisms of dasies in an area.
explain why you think that collecting data using s
the sampling techniques may not be exactly the same and an organism may die after they have been marked.
explain why no. keys are more useful to biologists
No. keys are useful because they are more organised than spider keys. they ask the same q's as a spidre key, but in a list.
what are the questions in a key based on
They are based on visible features or characteristics of the organism
explain why biologists need to be able to identify
So that thay can accrately describe them to other biologists. keys help them to identify plants and animals.
where does the energy for photosynthesis come from
It comes from the sun
plants convert some glucose to cellulose. what is
the cellulose is used for growth and other functions
explain why plant cells store carbohydrate as star
1. It can be converted back into glucose for respiration
2. it is insolouble and so it will not dissolve in water and flow out of the cells
3. it doesnt affect the water concentration inside the cells.
describe why plants grow most in spring and summer
the weather is usually warmer and there is more sunlight. light energy is needed for photosynthesis and warmth speeds up the rate of photosynthesis.
explain why burning a fuel in a glasshouse will in
more CO2 will be emitted and it adds warmth to the greenhouse. plants grow quicker when it is warmer.
explain what a limiting factor is
whena process is affected by several factors,the one that is at the lowest level,will be the factor that limits the ROR.
explain in terms of limiting factors why gardeners
the light is the limiting factor(there isnt a lot of it at all). the ROR of photosynthesis is slowed down because there is not much light and the temp. isnt warm at all in winter.
which adaptations of the leaf allow it to trap as
The outer epidermal cells are transparent to allow light through.
Chloroplasts contain the chloroplly and other pigments that absorb light energy for photosynthesis.
wht did Van-helmont discover was needed for photos
Van-Helmont discoverd that plants grow by absorbing water
does diffusion require energy?
No it doesnt reqire energy this is because the molecules move spontaneously from regions of high conc. to regions of low conc. .
for a molecule to diffuse into a cell, should the
The concentration outside a cell should be higher,for a molecule to diffuse into a cell.
oxygen diffuses across the gills of a fish,Do you
I expect the cell lining of the gills to be thin becasue the shorter the distance the oxygen has to travel,the quicker the rate of diffusion.
what is the name givento the holes in a partially
The holes ar ecalled Pores.
describe what would happen to the mass of a potato
the mass would heavier because it takes up water by osmosis and the pressure inthe sells increase. this is called turgor pressure. the cell becomes rigid or turgid.
a casualty has lost blood. explain are they given
if a cell is placed in a solution that is more dilute than its contents, it takes up water, swells, adn may burst. if it is placed into a solution with the same conc. as its contents, there is no net movement of water,so the cell remains the same.
name the tissue responsible for transporting food
Vascular bundles are responsible for transporting for transportation.
explain why it is important that xylem cells are h
xylem cells are involved in transportation of water and dissolved substances through the plant.
describe how the distribution of vascular bundles
In the root: located in the center, it helps the roots act like an anchor and allows the roots to bend as the plant moves in the breeze or is tugged from above
In the Stem: located around the outer edge of the stem,it provides the strenght to resist bending of the stem in the breeze.
Int the leaf: vascular bundle form networks,which support the softer leaf tissues
name two ways that the plant reduces water loss.
1. a waxy cuticle on the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf
2. very few stomata on the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf.
which part of the plant takes in minerals?
the root hair cells take in minerals
suggest why gardeners swap from a high nitrogen fe
gardenrs want plants to grow and potassium is needed for enzymes so that you can get plants growing.
state two differences between acive transport and
Diffusion is high conc. to a low conc.
Active transport is the opposite of this.
Active transport needs energy and Diffusion doesnt.
why do gardeners need to water their plants more i
plants loose more water in the summer through thier leaves as the light intensity and temp. go up.
explain why plants on a sand dune will lose water
It is windy,the water particles will be lost faster.
why do florists spray ferns with water to keep the
it increasaes the humidity so that the plant dose not loose water and wilt. also its so that they stay turgid
describe why bacteria are important in natural rec
the elements (once decayed) go back into the environment for plants to reuse. Bacteria is a chemical decomposer which releases ammonium compounds into the soil.
describe how an organic farmer, who does not want
he could gather waste such as grass cuttings,leaves and twigs and piling them up or putting them into a compost bin,to allow themm to decay. the result is a nutrient rich soil, which can be used for growing plants.
describe the differences between a sapro[hte and a
a saprophyte feeds by releasing enzymes onto the dead plant or animal. whereas Detritvores eat small parts of the dead material,which are digested ten relesed as waste. saprohytes digest material in a process called EXTRACELLULAR digestion.
name the 7 common ways of preserving food.
5. Adding salt
6. Adding sugar
explain why food from a tin that has been opened w
the food which has been canned still has water in it,so it means that the food still contains decomposing microbes, so therefore it would decay quicker than jam.
explain why keeping food in a fridge doesnt stop i
the reproduction of decomposres is slowed down, this means that decomposing microbes are still entering the food, however the temp. of 4oc slows down the rate of decay.
how is preseving food by salting similar to preser
adding sugar is similar to preserving food with salt because osmosis occurs in both methods, water is drawn out of the food
what is the advantage to to the farmer using a her
herbicides kill weeds that might compete with the crop for resourcese such as light water and soil minerals.
why are most insecticides required by law to break
they can easily enter and build up or accumilate in the food chain, this can directly affect human health.
disscus the pros and cons of battery farming
the advantage to the farmer is that the aniamls cannot move around as much and ar ekept warmer, which stops them wasting energy. however the disadvantages are that it is less humane and the animals cannot move around freely. also their behaviour changes as a result.
name two environmental factors that can be control
farmers can manipulate the environment and grow tender crops all year round.
pesticides and fertilisers are contained inside, so they do not escape into the natural environment
why would hydroponics be a useful techniques in de
it doesnt require the use of any soil at all and the minerals needed by the plant would be sprayed on the roots exposed. a solution containing the correct conc. of minerals dissolved into water is sprayed.
name 2 types of chemicals not used by organic farm
1. Artificial fertilisera
describe the ways in which biological control is b
there are no chemicals to escape into the enviroment and damge or kill other animals. also there si no need for chemicals to be used.
describe a way in which organic farmers control we
they control weeds by covering the soil with plastic sheeting to prevent weeds from growing.
why is organic food more expensive
the farmers produce smaller amounts of healthy good quaility food. they also need to make a profit and they do not use artificial fertilsers, they only use natural ones such a smanure.etc.
what would a farmer have to consider before intodu
the predator might not eat the pest and it may eat other useful species. also adding or removing organisms from a food web may have an impact on it.