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Classification

Classification = this is when animals are classed into different 'species'. Invertibrate - vertibrate - mammal - organisams - bacteria - birds - reptiles - fish - insects - DNA    -   hybrids eg donkeys and horses breed to make a mule, but this offspring will be infertile - Evolution affects how the species is made eg dolphins and bats.

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Energy Flow

Energy Flow - Pyramids of biomass - (energy - food source - consumer/prey - predator) - Energy used for growth divided by energy input

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Recycling

Recycling - the carbon cycle - carbon is found in living organisims - carbon needs to be recycled - plants do this with photosynthesis - and feeding moves it along the food chain - carbon dioxide is in the air and released by plants and animals respiring - soild and fungi decomposing and the burning of fossil fules (combusion) - carbon dioxide is absorbed from the air by oceans.  Marine organisims make shells made of carbonate, which become limestone rocks. - The carbon in limestone can return to the air as carbon dioxide during volcanice eruptions or weathering.

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Recycling

The Nitrogen Cycle - plants take in nitrogen as nitrates from the soil to make protein for growth - feeding passes nitrogen compounds along a food chain - the nitrogen compounds in dead plants and animals are broken down by decomposition and returned to the soil - a number of microrganisams are responsible for the recycling of nitrogen.

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Interdependence

Competition between animals and plants to get food, mates and sunshine - this happens when they are living in the same habitat - Preditor-prey relationships - preditor and prey show cyclical changes which means if there is no prey the preditor species dies out and if there is no preditor the prey species grows - Parasitism and mutualism - a parasite is something that lives off the host such as mosquitoes - mutualism means that they work together eg bees and flowers

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Adaptations

Adapting to the cold - for animals to adapt to the cold they have insulating fur - blubber - Adapting to the hot, dry conditons - camels - feet - humps - eyelashes - cacti - spikes - loses less water - less surface area

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Natural Selection

Charles Darwin and Natural Selection - his theory, 150 years ago, was that animals and plants adapted to suit their environment - genes passed on - survival of the fittest - giraffe with a long neck you survived because you could reach the leaves so the long neck was passed onto it's offspring - these changes can sometimes produce a new species - eg camoflage, moths - arguments at first people disagreed as the had not got enough evidence - now it is widely accepted - Jean Baptiste de Lamarck - law of acquired characteristics

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Natural Selection

Charles Darwin and Natural Selection - his theory, 150 years ago, was that animals and plants adapted to suit their environment - genes passed on - survival of the fittest - giraffe with a long neck you survived because you could reach the leaves so the long neck was passed onto it's offspring - these changes can sometimes produce a new species - eg camoflage, moths - arguments at first people disagreed as the had not got enough evidence - now it is widely accepted - Jean Baptiste de Lamarck - law of acquired characteristics

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