Schizophrenia Classification and Diagnosis

The classification and diagnosis for Schizophrenia, defined by ICD-10

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  • Created by: Nininora
  • Created on: 25-04-14 11:55

Diagnostic Criteria

At least one symptom from Category 1 OR at least two symptoms under Category 2

Symptoms should be present for most of the time for at least 1 month at some time during most days

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Category 1

  • Thought
    • Echo
    • Insertion
    • Withdrawal
    • Broadcast
  • Delusions
    • Control
    • Influence or passivity
    • Delusional perceptions
  • Hallucinatory voices
    • Running commentary
    • Discussion coming from another part of the body
  • Persistent delusions that are culturally annapropriate or impossible
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Category 2

  • Peristent hallucinations in any modality accompanied by half-formed delusions or overvalued ideas
  • Neologisms (making up new words), breaking the train of though
    • Results in incoherence or irrelevant speech
  • Catatonic behaviour
  • Negative symptoms
    • Apathy
    • Paucity of speech
    • blunting or incongruity of emotional response
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Exclusion Clauses

If the patient meets the criteria for manic episodes or depressive episodes, the criteria for Schiz. must be met before mood disturbance developed

The disorder is not attributavle to organic brain disease or alcohol/drug related intoxication, dependence or withdrawal

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Advantages

  • Communication shorthand
    • It is easier to incorporate several symptoms into one diagnosis, making communication between health professionals easier
  • Aetiology
    • Knowing the diagnosis can aid research into the underlying cause
  • Treatment
    • A reliable diagnosis can point to a therapy that will alleviate symptoms
  • Prognosis
    • An accurate diagnosis can provide valuable information about the course of the disorder, which can help plan the treatment
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Disadvantages

  • Misdiagnosis
    • Patients may be given the wrong treatment or therapy, or may even be wrongly institutionalised
  • Assumption of separate categories
    • Diagnostic systems assume that you either have the disorder or you don't, there's nothing in between. While this is often the case, there are also many people who are somewhat depressed or slightly anxious
  • Labelling
    • Labelling can be stigmatising and can lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy
  • Historical and cultural context
    • Disorders included in the diagnostic manuals sometimes reflect social/political attitudes at the time
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