AO1 - Clinical characteristics
- Two of the chriterion A symptoms must be apparent for a one month period.
- Delusions - bizarre beliefs that are not real, paranoid, fearful of persecution, inflated beliefs about the persons power and importance,
- Hallucinations - bizarre unreal perceptions of the environment, hearing voices, seeing things that are not there,
- No possibility of mood disorder
- No organic cause e.g. drugs
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AO2 1 - Inter rater reliability
- Relatively low
- Whaley et al - IR reliability as low as 0.11 between health professionals.
- Therefore diagnosis was rarely consistent.
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AO2 2 - Cultural interpretations
- Copeland gave a description pf a patient to US and UK psychiatrists.
- US - 69% diagnosed
- UK - 2% diagnosed.
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AO2 3 - Reliability
- Rosenhan 'sane in insane places'
- pseudopatients told psychiatrists they were hearing voices.
- All were diagnosed and admitted.
- Showed no further symptoms.
- No staff recognised they were normal.
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AO2 4 - Follow up study
- psychiatrists told to expect pseudopatients.
- 21% detection rate - none were actually sent.
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AO2 5 - Comorbidity
- extent that two or more conditions co - occur (schizophrenia and depression.)
- Avoid this by using first rank symotoms when diagnosing.
- Bentall - many first rank symtoms are found in other disorders such as bipolar disorder
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AO2 6 - Spectrum of psychotic symptoms.
- no discrete disorder as schizophrenia but instead there is a spectrum.
- Allardyce - symptoms used to characterise SZ do not define a specific disorder as they are also found in other categories of psychosis described in DSM.
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AO2 7 - low predictive validity
- low predictive validity for SZ.
- some patients do recover their previous level of functioning.
- 40% never really recover.
- This much variation suggests that the original diagnosis lacked predictive validity.
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AO2 8 - other influential factors
- other factors may be more influential on the ultimate outcome of having schizophrenia.
- Malmberg - more to do with gender.
- Harrison - more to do with psychosocial factors such as social skills, academic achievement and family tolerance of schizophrenic behaviour.
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