Schizophrenia classification and diagnosis issues essay plan

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  • Created by: KCharlish
  • Created on: 27-03-16 21:56

AO1 - Clinical characteristics

  • Two of the chriterion A symptoms must be apparent for a one month period. 
    • Delusions - bizarre beliefs that are not real, paranoid, fearful of persecution, inflated beliefs about the persons power and importance, 
    • Hallucinations - bizarre unreal perceptions of the environment, hearing voices, seeing things that are not there,
  • No possibility of mood disorder
  • No organic cause e.g. drugs
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AO2 1 - Inter rater reliability

  • Relatively low
    • Whaley et al - IR reliability as low as 0.11 between health professionals. 
    • Therefore diagnosis was rarely consistent.
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AO2 2 - Cultural interpretations

  • Copeland gave a description pf a patient to US and UK psychiatrists.
  • US - 69% diagnosed
  • UK - 2% diagnosed.
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AO2 3 - Reliability

  • Rosenhan 'sane in insane places'
    • pseudopatients told psychiatrists they were hearing voices.
    • All were diagnosed and admitted.
    • Showed no further symptoms.
    • No staff recognised they were normal.
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AO2 4 - Follow up study

  • psychiatrists told to expect pseudopatients.
  • 21% detection rate - none were actually sent.
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AO2 5 - Comorbidity

  • extent that two or more conditions co - occur (schizophrenia and depression.)
  • Avoid this by using first rank symotoms when diagnosing.
  • Bentall - many first rank symtoms are found in other disorders such as bipolar disorder
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AO2 6 - Spectrum of psychotic symptoms.

  • no discrete disorder as schizophrenia but instead there is a spectrum.
  • Allardyce - symptoms used to characterise SZ do not define a specific disorder as they are also found in other categories of psychosis described in DSM.
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AO2 7 - low predictive validity

  • low predictive validity for SZ.
    • some patients do recover their previous level of functioning.
    • 40% never really recover. 
    • This much variation suggests that the original diagnosis lacked predictive validity. 
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AO2 8 - other influential factors

  • other factors may be more influential on the ultimate outcome of having schizophrenia. 
    • Malmberg - more to do with gender.
    • Harrison - more to do with psychosocial factors such as social skills, academic achievement and family tolerance of schizophrenic behaviour. 
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