The diagnosis of Schizophrenia using the DSM-IVR requires at least 1 month duration of 2 or more positive symptoms.
Appear to reflect on excess or distortion of normal function.
Appear to reflect a disminuation or loss of normal function.
Bizarre beliefs that seem real to the person with schizophrenia. Sometimes paranoid (persecution) in nature and may also involve beliefs grandiosity (you are someone important). Delusions of reference involve the belief that the behaviour or comments of others (even on TV) are specifically meant for the individual alone.
Experiences of Control
Individuals may believe that they are under the control of an alien force that has invaded their mind and/or body.
Hallucinations are bizarre, unreal perceptions of the environment that can be auditory, visual, olfactory or tactile.
The feeling that thoughts have been inserted into or withdrawn from the mind, and/or through are broadcast to that others can hear them.
The poverty of speech, characterised by the lessening of speech fluency and productivity. This is thought to reflect slowing or blocked thoughts.
A reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression including facial expression, voice tone, eye contact and body language.
The reduction of, or inability to initiate and persist in, goal directed behaviour. This is often mistaken for apparent disinterest.
Subtypes of Schizophrenia
Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, often with persecution or grandiosity.
Disorganized speech or behaviour, or flat or inappropriate emotion.
Immobility, or excessive, purposeless movement, extreme negativism, and/or parrotlike repeating of another’s speech or movements.
Many and varied symptoms
Withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared.