Explain why the Sarajevo assassination led to war
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand led to war in August 1914 because it was the trigger for ongoing tensions between countries. All these different tensions which are why the assassination led to war are linked because countries used the assassination to exploit alliances in order to declare war on their enemies.
1. The main reason why the assassination led to war was because Austria-Hungary were outraged at Serbia, because the assassin was a member of the Serbian terrorist group the Black Hand Gang and during a criminal investigation in court it was revealled that the leader of the conspiracy was in contact with Serbian chief of military intelligence and the ganag must have had help from Serbian officials to allow them through the boarder and suppply them with weapons. So the assissnation was the excuse the Habsburgs needed to declare war on Serbia whom they had tensions with because the Hasburgs were trying to oppose nationalism as it would weaken their empire yet Serbia was encouraging it, and this led to many disputed, such as over Serbia's gain of the Adriatic coastline which the Habsburgs insisted be taken away. So after Serbia refused to agree fully to the ultimatum Austria had given them, the Habsburgs declared war on their enemy Serbia.
2. This meant Serbia's ally Russia were quick to prepare their forces because they too had tensions with austria because the wanted to promote pro-Russian governments in the Balkand by encouraging nationalism yet Austria was opposing this and so at the Bosnian Crisis, Russia considered war but were forced to back down, because of Germany increasing tensions between them. Therefore, when Germany who was allied to Austria in the Triple Alliance told Russia to withstan troops and not help Serbia, Russia ignore Germany as they didn't want to have to back down again, and this meant Germany declared war on Russia.
3. So as the Triple Alliance became inolved, the Triple Entente also got involved as France who was allied to Russia started preparing its forces, perhaps partly because it had rivalry with Germany over colonies in the Moroccan crisies od 1905 and 1911. However, Germany was prepared for this and had prepared the Sclieffen plan to fight France and Russia. However, this plan involved invading France by going through Belgium. This provoked Britain to declare war against Germany on August 4th because it said it was honouring an agreement of 1839 to guarantee Belgium's independence, but perhaps it was more due to wanting to declare war on its enemy Germany who had challenged British naval supremacy, and economic superiority over the passed years.
- Archduke Franz Ferdinand married Sophie Chotek-not popular with Franz Joeseph as Sophie was not of royal blood
- Sophie was made princess of Hohenberg (Wilhelm Tsar Nicholar and Pope Leo wrote to Franz Joeseph) but couple had to agree that children would not inherit the throne and they had to limit their public appearances.
Key features of Assassination of Archduke Franz Fe
1. On 28th June Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie Chotek went to Bosnia-Herzegovina to inspect military troos after which they went on a procession in an open top car to their next appointment. Among the crowd were six Bosnian-Serbs who were members of the Serbian Terrorist group the Black Hand Gang, whose aim was to re-create Greater Serbia and one of their terrorist acts was to kill the Archduke
2. Another feature is that the six members were stationed along the Archduke's route, the first two didn't act and the third threw a bomb but the delay meant it just bounced off the back of the car injuring by-standers. The driver then went the wrong way and attempted to reverse, but this happened right in front of member Gavrilo Princip who took the opportunity to shoot the Archduke and his wife.
3. After the arrest and trial of the conspirators it seemed likely that the gang had received weapons and were allowed through the border with the weapons by Serbian official. This was then the trigger for the first world war, as after Serbia refused to accept fully the ultimatum they were sent Austria declared war on Serbia.
Consequences of Sarajevo assassination-key facts
- 5 conspirators were arrested and the organiser Ilic
- Although at their trial the conspirators claimed to be acting on their own a crime investigation at court revealled Ilic had been in contact with chief of Serbian military intelligence and is believed that the conspirators had support from Serbian officials in supplying them with weapons and allowing them through the boarder.
- On 23rd July Habsburg government sent an ultimatum (a demand) to Sebia
- Serbian government agreed to co-operate as much as it could but absolutely refused to allow Austrian government representatives into Serbia for an enquiry.
- After Austria-Hungary received this respones they declared war on Serbia on 28th July.
Briefly explain results of Sarajevo assassination
1. There had been ongoing tensions between Serbia and Austria-Hungary, and so the assassination gave the Habsburgs the excuse they needed to declare war on Serbia. The reason being that it was discovered the leader of the conspiracy was in contact with the chief of Serbian military intelligence, and the gang must hav had support from Serbian official in supplying them with weapons and allowing them through the boarder.
2. So after confirming German support, on the 23rd Jely the Habsburg government sent an ultimatum to Serbia as a result of the assassination. It was a list of demands Serbia had to agree to in response to the assassination
3. Although Serbia agreed to co-operate as much as they could they refused to let Austrian government representatives into Serbia for an enquiry. On receiving this response Austria declared war on Serbia on the 28th of July and this then led to all the powers becomming involved due to alliances.
How did the alliances and Ententes contribute to t
Serbia agreed to co-operate with ultimatum as much as they could but absolutely refused to allow Austrian government officials into Serbia for an enquiry
A-H and Germany rejected a conference suggested by Britain to sort out tension
A-H declared war on Serbia on 28th July due to response of ultimatum
Russians then began to prepare troops as they were allied to Serbias, but because Germany were allied to Austria they demanded Russia withstand troops and not help Serbia, Russia ignored Germany and so the Germans declared war on 1st August.
Germany had prepared the Schlieffen Plan they thought:
- Germany would fight France and Austria-Hungary would fight Russia
- Germany would defeat France quickly and so then help A-H defeat Russia
- Britain would not enter the war because power of Triple Alliance would make them reluctant.
So when France mobilised its forces because it was allied to Russia, Germany responded by invading France with Schlieffen Plan--Schlieffen plan speeded up the start of the war because if Germany was to fight Russia it needed to defeat France quickly to avoid a war on two fronts.
Howver, Schlieffen Plan involved invading France through Belgium
-Britain said they would honour agreement of 1839 to honour Belgium's independence and so declared war on on Germany on 4th August.
Why did relations between Britain and France with
1. One reason British and French relations with Germany got worse before 1914 was because of the series of alliances that so clearly distinguished the Great Powers into 2 rival groups.
German relations with France got worse in this way because Germany made the Triple Alliance with Italy and Austria, and had a spearate alliance with Russia making France feel isolated and nervous because Britain had no interest in war. However, due to the uprising power of Germany Britain signed the Entente Cordiale with France in 1904, which developed to the TRiple Entente as Russia joined, and this made British relations with Germany worse because they had made it clear they were in an opposing group, causing great tension.
2. This then links to military rivalry that started between these two groups
-naval supremacy/arms race, there was also economic competiton between Brit and Germany which caused relations to deteriorate.
3. MAIN REASON colonial competiton which led to incidents of Moroccan crisis and Agadir crisis which was crucial in deteriorating relations because it was an actual dispute that made Germnay look foolish as they were forced to back down both times increasing tension as they were determined to win next dispute.