Conditions in Russia 1921
-1921- War Communism leads to famine worsneded by drought.
-5 million die from starvation.
-Cannibalism was reported.
-War Communism was brought in by Lenin to provide for the economic needs of the Red army during the civil war.
-War Communism was successful because it supplied the Red army with food and supplies whih enabled victory over the whites.
-However War Communism failed to create a utopian state.
-The worsening effects of War Communism in 1921 reaches the Kronstadt sailors.
-In Febuary the demand for better conditions and rise up.
-Red attack with 60,000 men.
-3 weeks of fighting results in 10, 000 dead or sent to labour camps.
-Lenin wanted no opposition and decided to stop the protests.
-Trotsky had to use the Red army to put down the rebellion.
-He ordred General Tukhachevsky to attack the naval base using 60,000 troops.
-During a 3 week struggle over 20, 000 men were killed or wounded in the fighting.
-The surviving rebels were either executed by the Cheka or put into Gulag (A prison where inmates were punished by forced labour).
NEP- New Economic Policy.
-After the Kronstadt uprising, Lenin realised that War Communism had to be abandonned.
-In March 1921- Lenin annonces the New Economic Policy.
-This reduces government control over aspects of the economy.
-Lenin saw the New Economic Policy as a temporary measure to get Russia back on it's feet.
-"One step forward, two steps back"
Key features of the NEP
-Grain requisitioning was abolished.
-Peasant who increased their food production would pay less tax.
-The ban on private trade was removed.
-Factories with fewer than 20 workers would be given back to their owners and consumer goods could be produced and sold for profit.
-Key industries, such as coal and steel still remained under state control.
-The NEP also included the electrification of Russia.
Life under Communists
- Marriage, divorce and abortion are made easier.
- Alexandra Kollantai was the first female member of any European government.
- 1920 abortion was made legal in all state hospitals.
Supression of religion-
- Land confiscated.
- Monasteries closed.
- Anti- religous laws banned preists from meting and the teaching of religion.
- Komsomol= Organization in the former Soviet Union for young people aged 14–28 years. Primarily a political organ for spreading Communist teachings and preparing future members of the Communist Party, it was organized in 1918
- Creating a massive literacy drive.
Soviet Foreign Policy
-Communist ideology viewed with suspicion from Western governments, particularly due to the Comintern.
-Relations did improve slightly in the 1920s.
-April 1922, Russia signed the Treaty of Rapallo with Germany fro greater economic co-operation.
- On every corner of the Russian empire.
- Messages had to be simple and visual as many Russians could not read or write.
- The Bolsheivks made use of the cinema to put across ther ideas to the masses.
- However, cinemas were almost entirely restricted to the towns so the government intoduced specially equipped trains which travelled across Russia showing political propaganda films.