The Constituent Assembly
-Lenin was dissapointed to fail to win a majority in the 1917 elections.
-Jan 1918- Lenin sent in troops to the dissolve the assembly after one day.
-The results of the election were;
-Socialist Revolutionaries= 370.
-Peace talks opened.
-Tsarist and Church land re-distributed.
-8 hour day in factories.
-Non -Bolshevik newspapers closed.
-Cheka (secret police) set up.
-Non religious weddings.
-Easier to obtain a divorce.
Decree on Land
-540 million acres of land taken from the Tsar, nobles, the church and other land owners.
-Opposition were the Nobles, other land lords and church whose land was seized.
Decree to set up political police.
-The Cheka was formed.
-Seen as no different to Tsar's police= the Okhrana.
Decree on the press.
-All non - Bolshevik newspapers were banned.
-Opposition were political parties such as the socialist revolutionaries (supported whites) as the opinions could not be heard.
-In 1918 Lenin renames the Bolshevik party the Communist party.
-He bans all other parties creating a one- party state.
Treaty of Brest- Litovsk
-To avoid the same fate as the Provisional Government Lenin needed to withdraw from the war.
-On the 3rd of March 1918, the treaty was signed.
- 27% of farmland.
- 26% of population.
- 74% of iron ore and coal.
- Fine of 3 billion roubles.
The reactions to the Treat of Brest- Litovsk.
-Causd disagreement within the Bolshevik party.
-People objected to the treaty because;
- Dictated nature of peace.
- The fact that Lenin and Trotsky would do anything to secure peace.
- Amount of land and population lost.
- Amount of reparations.
Poland and the Treaty of Riga.
-1920 Poles with French support took advantage of the chaos and capture Kiev.
-Treay of Riga 1921- Russia forced to sign away 130, 000 km of territory to Poland.
Role of Trotsky.
-He dealth with ill-discipline through harsh punishments e.g captial punishment for desertion or disloyalty.
-In 1918 Trotsky was made chairman of the supreme War council.
-He used 'Modern Cavalry' to visit the front in order to give rallying speeches to improve soliders morale.
-He employed the best officers from the Tsar's old army and kept their family hostage.
-Trotsky restored conscription in order to raise a large army of 5 million.
-He removed soldier's committeses and electons of officers, replacing them with traditional officer structure.
-He brought back thousands of former Tsarist officers who were unemployed and poor (wanted to get back to the job they knew).
-To ensure their loyalty Trotsky had their families kept hostage.
-He restored strict miliatry discipline by bringing back the death penalty for a range of offences.
-The state controlled all aspects of the economy to supply the army with food and weapons.
-Towns= Trade unions banned, death penalty put in force for striking.
-Countryside= Lenin ordered requisition sqauds, headed by the Cheka to seize surplus foods.
Economic reasons for Lenin to introducing War Comm
-The Peasants wanted to keep the land they were given but were unwilling to sell the food they grew.
-Lenin wanted to control the supply of food for the towns.
-Prices had risen rapidly and there was now inflation.
Social reasons for Lenin introducing War Communism
-There as severe shortages of food and other necessarities in Russia.
Political reasons for Lenin to introduce War commu
-The policy followed the Communist idea of central control and direction of the economy.
Military reasons for Lenin to introduce War commun
-The Bolsheviks had to guarantee supplies for the huge Red Army during the Cival War against the whites.
Main features of War Communism.
-Rationing of food was to be strictly applied during food shortages.
-Private trading was banned.
-Lenin orders squads into the countryside to seize food if peasants proves unwilling to surrender produce.
-Factories with more than 10 workers were nationalised.
-Rapid inflation, which left money valueless.
Cheka and Red Terror.
-December 1917 Lenin created the Cheka.
-They arrested, tortured and executed anyone who was disloyal to the Bolsheviks.
-August 1918 Lenin was shot 3 times by a Socialist Revolutionary.
-Between 1917 an 1924 the Cheka killed more than 250, 000 people.
-By the end of the war an estimated 200, 000 had been killed and 85, 000 imprisoned by the secret police.
Death of the Tsar and his family.
July 1918- Tsar and his family were murdered by local Red soldiers in case he fell into the hands of the White army.
-March 1919 Comintern (Also known as the third international) was created by Lenin.
-Aimed to organise Socialist Revolutionaries.
-Communist uprisings in Germany and Hungary were failures.
-Communist parties in other countries resented control from Moscow.
-It did much to worsen relations with other countries, especially Britain.