Growth of opposition
- Seeds of opposition sown well before reign of Alexander III
- Despite the reaction revolutionary activities continued- June 1888 332 mass disturbances
- Repression and especially Russification drove many into opposition either in Russia or abroad
- Turn of the century revolutionaries contained many Jews forced into opposition (e.g. Trotsky, Zinoviev)
- Four main opposition groups opposed to tsardom can be identified: The Populists, Social Revolutionaries, Social Democrats, the Liberals.
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- Leadership drawn from the upper middle classes, Russian intelligentsia
- 1870s attempted to educate the peasantry through "Going to the people"- campaign failed
- Split movement- Passive vs Violent- People's will assassinated Alex II turned to terrorism
- Revolution based on peasantry unrealistic.
- Populist leaders killed after assassination, but sowed the seeds of other revolutionary groups.
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- Grew out of the populists
- Interest in social- economic issues
- Peasant orientated programme- lead by "Victor Chernov" 1901
- Wished to widen the concept of the people in order to attempt to overthrow the Tsarist regime with the works- this was appealing
- Attracted revolutionary youth similar to populists divided by anarchist vs peaceful
- Killed 2,000 (inc G Duke Sergei + Plehve)
- However terrorism dominated, dint encourage uprising and didn't overthrow the system
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