Russia History


Bloody Sunday

22nd January 1905

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Blood Sunday- Growth of opposition towards Tsar be

The growth of opposition to Tsar before 1917...

-Peaceful march to the winter palace.

-To petition for better working conditions.

-Led by Father Gapon.

-Tsar was not present.

-Soliders panicked and openedfire on the protestors (killing hundreds and wounding thousands).

-Tsar was blamed unfairly (Russian people hated him).

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Stolypin necktie- Growth of opposition towards Tsa

-Tsar appointed Stolypin as prime minister.

-He hung 3, 000 people due to their opposition towards Tsar.

-Caused opposition towards Tsar as he was theoe to appoint him.

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1905 Revolution- Growth of opposition towards Tsar

-Strikes were taking place in the navy.

-In order to avoid further chaos Tsar issued the October Manifesto.

-It promised the freedom of speech and the Duma.

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The failure of the Dumas- Growth of opposition tow

-After the first Duma was elected Tsar announced the fact that they had no power (he could dismiss them whenever).

-He could also change the rules over which they were elected.

-He went against the promise of the October manifesto and stayed and autocrat.

-Causing more opposition.

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Industrial unrest- more opposition

The development of industry had produced poor living and working conditions for the industrial workers.

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Russia at war- the opening stages...

-Russia went to war against Germany and Austria- Hungary in 1914.

-Russain Army suffered massive defeats.

-Were poorly led and had shortages of weapons.

-Huge loss of lives.

-Conscription in the army lead to a shortage of workers in factories.

-Transport system couldnt cope with demands for food and materials.

-Food shortages increased in towns causing INFLATION.

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Reasons for defeats (Poor leadership of generals a

-Lazy, incompetent and overconfident officers.

-Generals did not work as a team.

-There was outdated tactics.

In 1914 they moved their armies too quickly into East Russia, confident of victory and were too far ahead of their support and supplies.

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Reasons for defeats- (Leadership of the tsar from

-Not capable so therefore made no difference to the war effort.

-Blamed for military defeats.

The peasants, who provided most of the army's recruits, had their image of a wise and caring Tsar further shattered by the war.

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Reasons for defeat- Supplies and Equipment

-Soliders had no boots or winter coats.

-Sometimes two or three men shared the same rifle.

-Usually they were short of bullets.

-They always needed mor medical supplies.

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Reasons for defeat- Lack of infrastructure.

-Not enough steel works, explosive factories, shipyards and medical supplies.

-Poor roads and inadequate railway system meant that supplies couldnt reach the front.

-There was an outdated telegraph system meaning military commands got lost.

-There was poor communication.

They sent wirless messages to each other which were interpretted by the Germans and gave away their positions.

They believed the cavalry would be decisive and rode with sabres ad lances which were no match for the German machine guns.

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The Tsar takes Charge-

-August 1915- Tsar takes personal command of the Russain army.

-He was a weak and incompetent commander.

-Tsar is now blamed personally for defeats.

-Leaves Alexandra in charge ( The people mistrusted her because she was German).

-Alexandra relies on mad monk Rasputin for advice.

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