Russian expansion before Peter
- Succeeded in 1654 in transferring the eastern part of the Ukraine from Polish to Russian sovereignity.
- Russian rule had spread across Siberia (greatly extended Russia in terms of area) in the wake of trade and commercial expansion.
- Michael had successfukky recaptured Novgorod from the Swedes in 1617.
- Alexis failed in the Russo-Swedish war of 1656-61 to ragin the Gulf of Finland. Meant that Muscovy still had no access to the Baltic.
- The seventeenth centurt tsars had failed to break through to the Black Sea in the south, despite attempts by Fedor III (1676-82) and Sophia (1682-9) to join with other powers in attacking Turkey.
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