Why were no Russian Policies passed?

- Tsar had final say on all decisions

- Autocracy

- Serfs Uneducated

- Soldeirs policed state

- Political Cencorship

- Russian Empire Huge

- Ethnic Mix

- Conservatism

- Political Parties Banned

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Effect of Emancipation on the Tsar

- Less Power

- Less Land

-Less Money

- Fear of Revolution

- His previous supporters are the landowners whose serfs he had taken

Nobility now had to pay the serfs.

Peasants Lost food etc, in high debt, inredibly poor.

So now the peasants were owned financially.

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Russian Industrialisation

Russia was so big it made it hard to build etc. Expertse needed, and Russia had little iniatiative and money to begin. Most Russians were in Debt, and there were few factories about.

STATE CAPITALISM- Government needs to provide oppurtunities instead of giving money.

Higher taxes on imports, to protect the new industry that's beginning. e.g. banking system, railways provided etc to produce these oppurtuinites.

Witte borrowed money from France, by 1913 there was 43,580 miles of railway track.

-New Government attitude -Railway connections grew - In 30 years, amount of coal mined expanded hugley. -Industry main priority -Russia sold Alaska for 7.2 billion

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1890s Great Spurt

Tsarist Government had millitary motives for industrialisation ( Better guns, equipment, ships etc)

Witte Finance minister from 1892-1903

Raised capital from foreign investment and high taxes/interest rates in Russia.

1897- Currency put on gold standard (strength when exchanged for other currencies)

Tariffs imposed protecting young domestic industries. Financial stability = Foreign investment.

Prices rose however, due to tariffs and taxes so goods scarcer.

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Railways during Great Spurt

Capital muchly invested in Railways. Witte believed the future of the economy depended on it.

1881-1913- Over 30,000 miles of track was laid. Trans siberian railway built between 1891-1902.

Connect the remote regions to the industrial West. Not complete by 1914. More a statement than real economic worth. (Little east-west migration)

Trade with Europe largely increased. Not so impressive when growth taken into account.

Growth at 96.8% highest compared with rivals, but growth not surprising.

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Wittes Problems in Russia

- Russia too dependant on foreign loans.

- Priority was heavy industry

- No attention to agriculural needs

- Resistance to change from court and government

- 1903- Tsardom forced his resignation. He was never trusted by Tsarist court, those who he was trying to save

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The end of the Great Spurt

Worldwide boom ended and recession set in.

Acute overcrowding from high populations in Towns and Cities.

Moscow by 1914 had 1,762,700 inhabitants.

Initially accepted poor conditions due to higher wages. Boom -> recession so unemployment rose.

Social Unrest- 1900 to 1917 thousands of disgruntled workers expressed concerns on the streets of Moscow.

1908-1914 - Industrial output rise of 8.5%.

Inflation rose by 40% whereas wages rose by 7% (1908-1914)

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Tsar and Nobility

Power and luxury, wanted to maintain lifestyle. Concerned of emancipation. 

Educated in classics, hunting, dancing etc

Resented the industry, dirty, vulgar and common. Stigma against them.

Inward thinking

Conservative view- Stay the same. Their living the most luxurious life.

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Commercial Classes

Owners of capital e.g. equipment, business etc

Small group made up 1.5% of population

wanted to maintain commercial position. urban lifestyle, no interest in land.

never owned surfs before the emancipation in 1861

Intelligentsia- Forward, future thinking! in other countries etc

Liberal beliefs. Freedom, should be free to reform and improve

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Industrial workers

Poor education, no education in industrial work.

Some begin to dispise countryside, see themselves as diffrent.

Admire their bosses, however dispise their poor conditions. Tension between classes.

aims of peasants higher, horizons broadened, more mobile and near information.

envious of those above them, potential for more tension. Troublesome for Tsar.

Anti Autocratic. Politically liberal and socialist. organise themselves easily to be revolutionaires. 

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- No education and no live improvement since emancipation.

- Given responsibility of their own, difficult adaption.

- Debt for 49 years, mortgage, added 6% interest. Miss a year = longer debt

- No action from Tsar about conditions of peasants

- Politically conservative because they know no different. 

- Socialist because want change and improvement.

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1891 Famine

- Parents would sell their dead children

- 800,000 people died due to famine.

- No crop due to a poor weather season

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Early 1900 Revolutionaries

Populists began stimulating a revolutionary atmosphere in late Imperial Russia because 'they went to the people', Populists went to live with the peasants to turn them into Revolutionaries.

Social revolutionarie ideas-

- End the Tsardom

- Provide a firm base for the party

- Assassinate political leaders to get point across.

- Return the land to those who owned it

Began in the 1870s after famine, and poor conditions experienced in 1860s.

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Idea of class struggle (economically and socially), That classes dispise those classes above them that own more assets to earn more money from, because they do less work for money.

(Rich Exploit the peasants to earn more money) Therefore maintain wealthy position by keeping peasants poor.

Marxist Stages of Feudal System-

1) King and Lords :) BELOW - Peasants :(

2) King and Lords BELOW - Middles Classes BELOW - Peasants (moving up)

3) (King) Middles classes run country- Industrial workers

4) Revolution - industrial workers rule

5) Marx Communism - Everyones equal, all work together etc ( Not ruled by Fear ) 

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Political Beliefs

Conservatism - Not willing to intervine. TSAR

Liberal - Should look after yourself, however benefits to less fortunate COMMERCIAL 

Socialist - Duty of the Government to take from the rich and give to poor RURAL WORKER

Left Wing - Aim for equality, take control over earnings INDUSTRIAL WORKER

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Social Democratic Split

Dispute between Lenin and Plekanov in 1903

Split between Plekanov's Broad Based party amd Lenins Tightly Knit party.

By 1912 Bolsheviks and Mensheviks had become two conlficting Marxist parties.


Systematically preparing ground for revolution since 1903. Lenin absent from country between 1904-1917.

They set up training school for Revolutionaries to infiltrate trade unions.

Stole money to print anti tsarist material and call for Revolution.

Best prepared for Revolution in 1917.

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Nicholas II 1894-1905

A time when Russia needed to rely on the strength of a Tsar, a man of weakness and limited outlook ruled Russia.

Growth of Opposititon in Russia huge at time of his reign.

Upbringing and Education made him suspicious of change.

Revolutionaries began to ready themselves to challenge him.

Educated by a man of repressive attitudes, against democracy.

He was a reactionary ( Opposing political/Social progress or reform)

Jokes that ' most powerful man in Russia was last to speak to Tsar ' 

Inability to handle subordinates.

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Russo Japanese War (1904-05)


- No warm water ports, so no trade access in winter

- Port Arthur good route into sea.

- Could only expand West

- Needed to compensate for great spurt end

- Build Industry

- Tsar did not want to make a deal (Russian Agression)

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Russo Japanese War (1904-05)


- Japan enclosed from world at the time, Russia believed they were behind

- Japan were quietly advancing their technology.

- Japan were societally and culturally successful. Ready for Russia's attack

- Japan wanted to preserve it's sovereignty and to be seen as an equal power in the world.

- Wanted to keep Korea as a buffer, a safe distance from Russia.

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Russo Japanese War (1904-05)

Russian Build Up to War:

- Russia began to fortify Port Arthur

- Extended trans siberian railway as a supply route

- Takes Koreas wood. Shifts timber into Russia

- Japan strike before Railway is Built

In Japanese culture it was shameful to surrender. They would be shunned from society. So Japan hit hard, fast and with no warning.

Russia underestimated Japan

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Russo Japanese War (1904-05)

March - Japan invades Korea. Russians cut off by Japanese to port Arthur.

October - Atttempt to fight back but fail

Millitary in Pacific Destroyed.

Fleets from west take 7 months to get to Port Arthur, become surrounded by Japanese, Battle of Tsushima wipes out Navy. 

Russia poor millitary organisation was humiliating. Worsened the economic disaster. Showed Japans advancement

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