The Leadership Struggle
- Well-off Jewish family of independent farmers.
- He joined a revolutionary group, but was soon exiled because of his poltical radicalism.
- 1902 he joined Lenin and other Marxists in London
- 1905 Revolution - leading figure in the St Petersburg Soviet of November - organised a general strike amongst St Petersburg workers.
- 1917 - reputation and oratory won support for the Communists during the planning of the October Revolution.
- Reconstructed the Red Army during the Civil War of 1918-1921
Relationship with Lenin:
- 1903 - Sided with the Mensheviks - turbulent relationship with Lenin, however, he later joined the Communists in 1917 - worked closely with Lenin.
- 'No better communist. The most able man in the present Central Committee' - Lenin's testament. He also said he arrogant.
Appeal within the party:
- Revolutionary heroism in 1905, 1917 and during the Civil War won support from young Communists.
- Loyalty of the Red Army
- Many in the party resented that Lenin trusted Trotsky
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