Philosphy GCSE, Islam and Christianity

Nature of God Key Words

Omnipotent- all powerful Omniscient- all knowing Omnibenevolent- all loving

Cosmological Argument- only God has the power to start the creation of the universe, so he must have been behind the big bang and evolution

Interventionist God- belief in a God who loves us so much that he intervenes in our lives to help us

Jesus- son of God

Lourdes- place of Miracles in France, people go to be healed by the waters

Design Argument- because of order and regularity in world, there must have been a God who designed and created it

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JOOLSETC- Beliefs about the Nature of God

Judge- Story of sheep and goats, God will seperate good (sheep) and bad (goats) souls

Omniscient- God is all knowing, he knows what has, is, and will happen

Omnipotent- God is all powerful. He was able to create the Universe (Genesis Story)

Loving- Omnibenevolent. God loves us so much he sacrificed Jesus to save us from sin.

Saviour - Same as above

Eternal - God has always and will always exist

Trinity- Three parts to God, Father, Son and Holy Spirit

Creator- God created the universe from nothing. Genesis story.

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REDCU- Why do Christians believe in God

Religious Experience- People have an experience of God. Numinous- feeling of awe/ Conversion- to change to or change from one religion to another religion.

Design argument- Belief that the world has a purpose and order so it couldn't happen randomly. There must have been a creator- God.

Cosmological argument- Scientific Evidence shows that a giant explosion happened at the start of time. Some Christians who believe in the Big Bang Theory think that only God has the power to start such a tremendous explosion. (He is Omnipotent)

Upbringing- Religious because that is how they have been brought up to be. they may have been christened at an early age. May attend Church or Sunday School as a family. May decide to take part in a confirmation and promise themselves to God. May attend a Church School where they will learn more about Christianity.

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How is the Bible used?

Holy book- they believe it is the Holy Book and the Word of God.

Difficulties- it would be used for reference in times of difficulty

Hope- it could be a source of encouragement and hope

Guidance- provides Christians with ethical guidance

Respect- will be treated with respect and as a higher source of authority than other books

Authority- refers to the importance of the Bible to Christians

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Fundamentalist Christians attitudes to the Bible

Meaning- it is wrong to find a hidden meaning in the Bible

Example Genesis Story- First story of the Bible, refers to how God created the World in 6 days and rested on the 7th. It also refers to how Adam and Eve disobeyed God and were punished

Historical Truth- believe that all the stories in the Bible are historical truth

Interpretation- Believe that interpreting the Genesis sotry as a myth is dangerous

Science- believe scientific evidence (fossils) are put on Earth by God to test faith, they are fake

Literally true- believe all the stories in the Bible with literal truth, believe that it all happened

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Liberal Christians attitudes to the Bible

Truths- believe that the stories have special meanings and teach special truths

Example Genesis Story- First story of the Bible, refers to how God created the World in 6 days and rested on the 7th. It also refers to how Adam and Eve disobeyed God and were punished

Not fact- do not believe the the Bible stories are historical fact

Why not how- Genesis story is symbolic, tells people why God created the universe, not how. He created it because he loved us and he loved his creation.

Symbolic- stories show people are supposed to look after everything in the world. The Bible is important, the stories may not be historical truth but they ahave symbolic meanings

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Guidance- God is able to be involved in Christians lives to help and guide them

Love- God is an interventionist so he loves us all

Impossible events- miracles are events which are impossibel. Believed to be caused by God

Involvement- all miracles are evidence that there is an Interventionist God who wants to be involved in peoples lives

Genesis Story- believe it is a miracle whicever way it happened

Lourdes- France, where people go to hope miracles take place

Interventionist- Christians believe that God is an interventionist God

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Religion & Science Keywords

Evolution- scientific theory describes how humans formed. Evolved from small organisms millions of years ago

Adam and Eve- first two Humans

Big Bang Theory- Scientific theory how the universe was formed by a giant explosion

Cosmological Argument- only God has the power to start the creation of the universe, so he must have been behind the big bang and evolution

Genesis Story- bible story that has the creation story in it

Creationist Christians- who argue scientific theories are wrong

Liberal Christians- accpet science as well as the Bible

Ex nihilo- Latin for from nothing. God created the universe from nothing

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Religion & Science Keywords Continued...

Design Argument- because of order and regularity in world, there must have been a God who designed and created it

Stewardship- the belief that humans have been the job of looking after the world and everything in it by God

Dominion- the belief that humans are in charge of the world and everything in it

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Creation fo the Wotld according to the Bible

The is the Genesis Story- God created the world from nothing- Ex nihilo

Day 1- Day and Night

Day 2- Sky

Day 3- Earth and plants

Day 4- Sun, moon and stars

Day 5- Fish and birds

Day 6- Animals and humans (Adam and Eve)

Day 7- God rested

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Creation of humans according to the Bible

God created Adam on first then Eve on the 6th day

He made "man in his image" and "breathed life into him"

The breath of life is believed to be the soul which sets humans apart from animals

God gave humans dominion- put them in charge

God gave them stewardship- the job of looking after his creation

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Creation of the world according to science

Scientific study of the universe= Cosmology

Most popular theory= Big Bang Theory

1- Giant explosion

2- Matter scattered

3- Matter began to stick together and formed planets

4- Solar systems and galaxies were formed

5- On Earth bacteria formed

6- Species evolved - fish and plants, reptiles, birds, mammals and primates

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Creation of humans according to science

Most popular theory= Darwin's theory of evolution

1- Bacteria
2- Multi-cellular organisms
3- fish
4-land plants and fungi
5- amphibians, insects and reptiles
6- Dinosaurs evolve
7- mammals and birds
8- modern mammals
9- humans evolve

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Science versus Christianity: Liberal Christians

Support the cosmological argument
Accept Big Bang theory and Evolution
Believe in Stewardship and Dominionship
Believe the Genesis story is symbolic
God created the world because he loved us
Humans are special and have evolved how God planned it
God is responsible for the Big Bang and Evolution
Humans evolved from primates
Genesis story isn't historical fact
God designed humans and gave them a soul to make them

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Science Versus Christianity- Creationist Christian

God made Adam first then Eve
He breathed life into them after making them in his image, believed to be the soul
He gave them dominion and stewardship
Scientific evidence (e.g. fossils) are put there by God to test faith
It is dangerous to accpet scientific theories because it questions God
Creation happened as the Genesis Story told it
The Genesis story is historical fact
Big bang theory and Evolution are wrong
Humans were created on 6th day by God

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Stewardshipe and Dominion

Dominion- God put humans in charge of everything in the world

Stewardship- humans were given the job of being stewards,"the earth is the Lords and everyting in it" (Psalm 24), the earth belongs to God, we should look after it

Our responsibility to look after the world and everything in it

Environment- they should try cut down on pollution, recycle etc

Animals- Christians should look after animals. Against animal testing.

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What sets humans apart from animals?

God made humans intellgient- animals don't have intelligence

God gave humans stewardship and dominionship- humans are in charge and are responsible for animals

Some believe that the fact that humans have souls and animals don't, justifies animal research if it benefits humans

Christians should look after animals as stewards of the world

Christians believe God gave humans the soul when he breathed life into them. Animals did not get a soul

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Cosmological Argument

Also known as the first cause argument

1- things come into existence because something caused them to happen
2- the chain of causes can be traced back to the beginning of time
3- God was the first cause of the univers

Aquinas: the universe had a beginning. There must have been a first cause. The first cause was God

Domino analogy: like a row of dominoes. When dominoes are put in a row they need someone to knock down the first domino to start the chain reaction. The universe needed something to start- it was God

Supports big bang theory- God started it

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Design argument

Evidence: there is order and regularity in the universe, seasons etc.

Aquinas: we cannot see hear or touch God. The natural world proves God exists. Nothing is random, there is order. there must have been an intelligent designer. Must be God.

William Paley- the watch: used the example of a watch to prove that God exists and designed the world. If we came across a stone on a moor we wouldn't think anything of it, but if there was a watch er woulds see its design and know there was a designer. The watch needs a designer and a maker, this is God.

William Paley- the eye: the world and everyting in it is complex. The human eye proves this- it works together so we can see. It was designed for seeing so there must have been a designer- God

The world and the universe are complex and beautiful it must have had a designer- God

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Death & Afterlife Keywords

Akirah- Refers to the beliefs about the last day and life after death

Al'Jannah- heaven

Barzakh- the period between death and the final judgement

Rouh- the soul

Shaytan- satan

Last Day- end of time

Jahannan- Hell

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What do Muslims believe about the body and soul

The body and soul (rouh) are seperate

Everyone has a distinct individual soul

The soul is immortal - Immortality of the soul

Live on earth as humans for a short time- life is a test and how life is lived will have consequences for what happens to the soul after death

The soul is eternal while the body is temporary

Human life does not begin at birth but that Allah chooses the stage that the soul will be born into a human body

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What happens after death?


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Imrose Khilji


Very Useful

Can be improved but still very good

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